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❶Plans to build the Simon 1 relay logic machine are published Simon featured on the November Scientific American cover. Faulty hardware, attackers, natural disasters, power failures, and errors from users can corrupt, damage, or delete data from a system.

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It was sold exclusively in Japan, but could process alphabetic and Japanese kana characters. Only about thirty NEACs were sold. It managed Japan's first on-line, real-time reservation system for Kinki Nippon Railways in The last one was decommissioned in At the top of the line was the Model , also known as "Stretch. The mainframe, the first in the series, replaces earlier vacuum tube technology with smaller, more reliable transistors.

By the mids, nearly half of all computers in the world were IBM s. Minuteman missiles use transistorized computers to continuously calculate their position in flight. The computer had to be rugged and fast, with advanced circuit design and reliable packaging able to withstand the forces of a missile launch. When the Minuteman I was decommissioned, some universities received these computers for use by students.

The US Navy Tactical Data System uses computers to integrate and display shipboard radar, sonar and communications data. This real-time information system began operating in the early s. System control was provided through the Atlas Supervisor, which some consider to be the first true operating system. The Control Data Corporation CDC performs up to 3 million instructions per second —three times faster than that of its closest competitor, the IBM supercomputer.

The retained the distinction of being the fastest computer in the world until surpassed by its successor, the CDC , in A later version of that machine became the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer. Because of its speed, small size, and reasonable cost, the PDP-8 was sold by the thousands to manufacturing plants, small businesses, and scientific laboratories around the world.

At the same press conference, IBM also announced 40 completely new peripherals for the new family. Operational by , it was not the first computerized reservation system, but it was well publicized and became very influential.

It was the world's first commercial bit minicomputer and systems were sold. This printing programmable calculator was made from discrete transistors and an acoustic delay-line memory.

The Programma could do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as calculate square roots. It was developed as a versatile instrument controller for HP's growing family of programmable test and measurement products. It interfaced with a wide number of standard laboratory instruments, allowing customers to computerize their instrument systems. The A also marked HP's first use of integrated circuits in a commercial product.

A year later, it steered Apollo 11 to the lunar surface. Astronauts communicated with the computer by punching two-digit codes into the display and keyboard unit DSKY. The AGC was one of the earliest uses of integrated circuits, and used core memory, as well as read-only magnetic rope memory. The astronauts were responsible for entering more than 10, commands into the AGC for each trip between Earth and the Moon.

The Nova line of computers continued through the s, and influenced later systems like the Xerox Alto and Apple 1. Designed by John V. Blankenbaker using standard medium-- and small-scale integrated circuits, the Kenbak-1 relied on switches for input and lights for output from its byte memory.

In , after selling only 40 machines, Kenbak Corporation closed its doors. Initially designed for internal use by HP employees, co-founder Bill Hewlett issues a challenge to his engineers in The HP helped HP become one of the most dominant companies in the handheld calculator market for more than two decades.

The first advertisement for a microprocessor, the Intel , appears in Electronic News. Developed for Busicom, a Japanese calculator maker, the had transistors and could perform up to 90, operations per second in four-bit chunks. Federico Faggin led the design and Ted Hoff led the architecture. Based on the Intel microprocessor, the Micral is one of the earliest commercial, non-kit personal computers. Designer Thi Truong developed the computer while Philippe Kahn wrote the software. Truong, founder and president of the French company R2E, created the Micral as a replacement for minicomputers in situations that did not require high performance, such as process control and highway toll collection.

In , Truong sold R2E to Bull. Designed by Don Lancaster, the TV Typewriter is an easy-to-build kit that can display alphanumeric information on an ordinary television set.

The original design included two memory boards and could generate and store characters as 16 lines of 32 characters. A cassette tape interface provided supplementary storage for text. The TV Typewriter was used by many small television stations well in the s.

Wang was a successful calculator manufacturer, then a successful word processor company. The Wang makes it a successful computer company, too.

Wang sold the primarily through Value Added Resellers, who added special software to solve specific customer problems. The first commercially advertised US computer based on a microprocessor the Intel , the Scelbi has 4 KB of internal memory and a cassette tape interface, as well as Teletype and oscilloscope interfaces. Scelbi aimed the 8H, available both in kit form and fully assembled, at scientific, electronic, and biological applications.

In , Scelbi introduced the 8B version with 16 KB of memory for the business market. The Alto is a groundbreaking computer with wide influence on the computer industry. It was based on a graphical user interface using windows, icons, and a mouse, and worked together with other Altos over a local area network.

It could also share files and print out documents on an advanced Xerox laser printer. Applications were also highly innovative: For its January issue, hobbyist magazine Popular Electronics runs a cover story of a new computer kit — the Altair Within weeks of its appearance, customers inundated its maker, MITS, with orders.

Chuck Peddle leads a small team of former Motorola employees to build a low-cost microprocessor. The and its progeny are still used today, usually in embedded applications. Southwest Technical Products is founded by Daniel Meyer as DEMCO in the s to provide a source for kit versions of projects published in electronics hobbyist magazines. Of the dozens of different SWTP kits available, the proved the most popular. Tailored for online transaction processing, the Tandem is one of the first commercial fault-tolerant computers.

The banking industry rushed to adopt the machine, built to run during repair or expansion. The Video Display Module VDM marks the first implementation of a memory-mapped alphanumeric video display for personal computers.

Introduced at the Altair Convention in Albuquerque in March , the visual display module enabled the use of personal computers for interactive games. The fastest machine of its day, The Cray-1's speed comes partly from its shape, a "C," which reduces the length of wires and thus the time signals need to travel across them. High packaging density of integrated circuits and a novel Freon cooling system also contributed to its speed.

Typical applications included US national defense work, including the design and simulation of nuclear weapons, and weather forecasting. Intel and Zilog introduced new microprocessors. Five times faster than its predecessor, the , the Intel could address four times as many bytes for a total of 64 kilobytes. The Zilog Z could run any program written for the and included twice as many built-in machine instructions.

Designed by Sunnyvale, California native Steve Wozniak, and marketed by his friend Steve Jobs, the Apple-1 is a single-board computer for hobbyists.

With an order for 50 assembled systems from Mountain View, California computer store The Byte Shop in hand, the pair started a new company, naming it Apple Computer, Inc.

In all, about of the boards were sold before Apple announced the follow-on Apple II a year later as a ready-to-use computer for consumers, a model which sold in the millions for nearly two decades. When connected to a color television set, the Apple II produced brilliant color graphics for the time. Millions of Apple IIs were sold between and , making it one of the longest-lived lines of personal computers. Apple gave away thousands of Apple IIs to school, giving a new generation their first access to personal computers.

The TRS proved popular with schools, as well as for home use. The TRS line of computers later included color, portable, and handheld versions before being discontinued in the early s. The first of several personal computers released in , the PET comes fully assembled with either 4 or 8 KB of memory, a built-in cassette tape drive, and a membrane keyboard.

The PET was popular with schools and for use as a home computer. After the success of the PET, Commodore remained a major player in the personal computer market into the s. The success of the VAX family of computers transformed DEC into the second-largest computer company in the world, as VAX systems became the de facto standard computing system for industry, the sciences, engineering, and research.

Shortly after delivery of the Atari VCS game console, Atari designs two microcomputers with game capabilities: The served primarily as a game console, while the was more of a home computer. Atari's 8-bit computers were influential in the arts, especially in the emerging DemoScene culture of the s and '90s.

The Motorola microprocessor exhibited a processing speed far greater than its contemporaries. This high performance processor found its place in powerful work stations intended for graphics-intensive programs common in engineering. Intended to be a less expensive alternative to the PET, the VIC was highly successful, becoming the first computer to sell more than a million units.

Commodore even used Star Trek television star William Shatner in advertisements. About 50, were sold in Britain, primarily to hobbyists, and initially there was a long waiting list for the system. The machine was expandable, with ports for cassette storage, serial interface and rudimentary networking.

The DN is based on the Motorola microprocessor, high-resolution display and built-in networking - the three basic features of all workstations. Apollo and its main competitor, Sun Microsystems, optimized their machines to run the computer-intensive graphics programs common in engineering and scientific applications. Apollo was a leading innovator in the workstation field for more than a decade, and was acquired by Hewlett-Packard in IBM's brand recognition, along with a massive marketing campaign, ignites the fast growth of the personal computer market with the announcement of its own personal computer PC.

It featured a 5-inch display, 64 KB of memory, a modem, and two 5. Thousands of software titles were released over the lifespan of the C64 and by the time it was discontinued in , it had sold more than 22 million units. It is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the greatest selling single computer of all time. Franklin was able to undercut Apple's pricing even while offering some features not available on the original. Sun Microsystems grows out of this prototype.

The company was incorporated by three year-old Stanford alumni: Sun helped cement the model of a workstation having an Ethernet interface as well as high-resolution graphics and the UNIX operating system. Lisa is the first commercial personal computer with a graphical user interface GUI. It was thus an important milestone in computing as soon Microsoft Windows and the Apple Macintosh would soon adopt the GUI as their user interface, making it the new paradigm for personal computing.

The success of the Portable inspired many other early IBM-compatible computers. Compaq's success launched a market for IBM-compatible computers that by had achieved an percent share of the personal computer market. The Macintosh was the first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphical user interface and was based on the Motorola microprocessor.

While the PC Jr. It also included more memory and accommodated high-density 1. By the early s, Dell became one of the leading computer retailers. It developed a very loyal following while add-on components allowed it to be upgraded easily. The inside of the Amiga case is engraved with the signatures of the Amiga designers, including Jay Miner as well as the paw print of his dog Mitchy. At 4 million operations per second and 4 kilobytes of memory, the gave PCs as much speed and power as older mainframes and minicomputers.

The chip brought with it the introduction of a bit architecture, a significant improvement over the bit architecture of previous microprocessors. It had two operating modes, one that mirrored the segmented memory of older x86 chips, allowing full backward compatibility, and one that took full advantage of its more advanced technology.

It performed 2 million instructions per second, but other RISC-based computers worked significantly faster. Daniel Hillis of Thinking Machines Corporation moves artificial intelligence a step forward when he develops the controversial concept of massive parallelism in the Connection Machine CM The machine used up to 65, one-bit processors and could complete several billion operations per second. Each processor had its own small memory linked with others through a flexible network that users altered by reprogramming rather than rewiring.

Using this system, the machine could work faster than any other at the time on a problem that could be parceled out among the many processors. One of Britain's leading computer companies, Acorn continued the Archimedes line, which grew to nearly twenty different models, into the s.

The computer he created, an all-black cube was an important innovation. This object-oriented multitasking operating system was groundbreaking in its ability to foster rapid development of software applications. VTech, founded in Hong Kong, had been a manufacturer of Pong-like games and educational toys when they introduce the Laser computer. The RISC microprocessor had a bit integer arithmetic and logic unit the part of the CPU that performs operations such as addition and subtraction , a bit floating-point unit, and a clock rate of 33 MHz.

The chips remained similar in structure to their predecessors, the chips. What set the apart was its optimized instruction set, with an on-chip unified instruction and data cache and an optional on-chip floating-point unit.

Combined with an enhanced bus interface unit, the microprocessor doubled the performance of the without increasing the clock rate. Apple had initially included a handle in their Macintosh computers to encourage users to take their Macs on the go, though not until five years after the initial introduction does Apple introduce a true portable computer.

Sales were weaker than projected, despite being widely praised by the press for its active matrix display, removable trackball, and high performance. The line was discontinued less than two years later. It would serve as the model for several other significant multi-processor systems that would be among the fastest in the world.

Based on Charles Babbage's second design for a mechanical calculating engine, a team at the Science Museum in London sets out to prove that the design would have worked as planned. Apple's Macintosh Portable meets with little success in the marketplace and leads to a complete redesign of Apple's line of portable computers.

All three PowerBooks introduced featured a built-in trackball, internal floppy drive, and palm rests, which would eventually become typical of s laptop design. The PowerBook was the entry-level machine, while the PowerBook was more powerful and had a larger memory.

The PowerBook was the high-end model, featuring an active matrix display, faster processor, as well as a floating point unit. The PowerBook line of computers was discontinued in Based on the Touchstone Delta computer Intel had built at Caltech, the Paragon is a parallel supercomputer that uses 2, later increased to more than four thousand Intel i processors.

More than one hundred Paragons were installed over the lifetime of the system, each costing as much as five million dollars. The Paragon at Caltech was named the fastest supercomputer in the world in Paragon systems were used in many scientific areas, including atmospheric and oceanic flow studies, and energy research.

Apple enters the handheld computer market with the Newton. The handwriting recognition software was much maligned for inaccuracy. The Newton line never performed as well as hoped and was discontinued in The Pentium introduced several advances that made programs run faster such as the ability to execute several instructions at the same time and support for graphics and music.

Using dual PowerPC CPUs, and featuring a large variety of peripheral ports, the first devices were used for software development. While it did not sell well, the operating system, Be OS, retained a loyal following even after Be stopped producing hardware in after less than 2, machines were produced. Officially known as the Track Write, the automatically expanding full-sized keyboard used by the ThinkPad is designed by inventor John Karidis.

The keyboard was comprised of three roughly triangular interlocking pieces, which formed a full-sized keyboard when the laptop was opened -- resulting in a keyboard significantly wider than the case.

Sony had manufactured and sold computers in Japan, but the VAIO signals their entry into the global computer market. The first VAIO, a desktop computer, featured an additional 3D interface on top of the Windows 95 operating system as a way of attracting new users. The VAIO line of computers would be best known for laptops were designed with communications and audio-video capabilities at the forefront, including innovative designs that incorporated TV and radio tuners, web cameras, and handwriting recognition.

The line was discontinued in Until the year , it was the world's fastest supercomputer, able to achieve peak performance of 1. The machine was noted for its ease-of-use and included a 'manual' that contained only a few pictures and less than 20 words. The camera had a maximum resolution of 0. Forensics on the Windows Platform, Part Two This is the second of a two-part series of articles discussing the use of computer forensics in the examination of Windows-based computers.

In Part One we discussed the wider legal issues raised by computer forensics and the benefits of pre-investigation preparation. In this article we will concentrate on the areas of a Windows file system that are likely to be of most interest to forensic investigators and the software tools that can be used to carry out an investigation.

Learning by Doing Do-it-yourselfer experiences the do's and don'ts of building a forensics workstation. Legal Aspects of Collecting and Preserving Computer Forensic Evidence Some of the most common reasons for improper evidence collection are poorly written policies, lack of an established incident response plan, lack of incident response training, and a broken chain of custody.

For the purposes of this paper, the reader should assume that policies have been clearly defined and have been reviewed by legal counsel, an incident response plan is in place, and necessary personnel have been properly trained. The remainder of this paper focuses on the procedure a private organization should follow in collecting computer forensic evidence in order to maintain chain of custody.

The first three papers covered the tools and tactics of the black-hat community. This paper, the fourth of the series, studies step by step a successful attack of a system.

However, instead of focusing on the tools and tactics used, we will focus on how we learned what happened and pieced the information together. The purpose is to give you the forensic skills necessary to analyze and learn on your own the threats your organization faces. Maintaining the Forensic Viability of Logfiles Collecting and retaining network and system logfiles has many advantages. There are several good sources of information related to what information should be logged, how best to log it, and in what ways this information can be used.

However, the requirements for the use of logfile data for technical purposes such as intrusion detection are quite different from, and not always complementary to, the requirements for the use of such data in a legal setting Source: Nailing the Intruder This paper is an attempt to link the various aspects of evidence relating to computer crime, the sources of such evidence and some tips on how to identify systems compromised and cull out evidence from the same.

A "How To" Guide The scope of this document is limited to the actions that should be taken after an illegal infiltration into a private or corporate network. It is assumed that the reader already has a good working knowledge of technology security. The topics covered include the application of the Fourth Amendment to computers and the Internet, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, workplace privacy, the law of electronic surveillance, and evidentiary issues.

A Case Study, Part 1 This article is the first in a two-part series that will offer a case study of forensics in a Windows environment. This installment will offer a brief overview of the detection and analysis of an attack incident. The second installment will look at continue to look at network traffic analysis techniques and will resolve a hypothetical attack scenario.

Part Two This article is the second in a two-part series that will offer a case study of forensics in a Windows environment. In Part One , we discussed host-based forensics techniques that first responders can use to detect attacks in relatively unprotected environments, and how to begin collecting information to determine the appropriate response. Part One dealt with understanding what an attacker was doing on an individual host. This article deals with determining the scope of the compromise, and understanding what the attacker is trying to accomplish at the network level.

Along the way, we'll be discussing some tools and techniques that are useful in this type of detective work. Regular IACIS members have been trained in the forensic science of seizing and processing computer systems. The laws that govern evidence collection vary from State to State, so be sure to check with your legal department before seizing computers.

Eventually the goal is to guide users to choose the right disk imaging tool in computer forensics. InfoSecurityMag April Legal Aspects of Collecting and Preserving Computer Forensic Evidence Some of the most common reasons for improper evidence collection are poorly written policies, lack of an established incident response plan, lack of incident response training, and a broken chain of custody.

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Answer to Look up “the paper that started the study of computer security.” Prepare a summary of the key points. What in this. Summary of the key points: To develop techniques and obtain experience on interconnecting computers. To improve and increase computer research productivity through resource sharing. Any program or user on any of the networked computers can access any other program or subsystem connected in the network without changing the remote program%(13).

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Information Security - Chapter 1. STUDY. PLAY. computer security. considered as the paper that started the study of computer security. the scope of computer security expanded into: securing the data, limiting random and unauthorized access to that data, involving personnel from multiple levels of the organization in information security. • The Rand Report R was the document that started computer security. • The Rand Report contains valuable material on security controls for resource-sharing and computer systems. It discusses intrusions, physical security threats, policy considerations. It also makes recommendations, and is now used in technical literature.