One of the more devastating manifestations of the schizophrenia is the auditory verbal hallucination AVH , in which the patient 'hears' non-existent external voices. A study by Bentaleb et al. January , relying on functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI , examined a patient who experienced continuous AVH that, nonetheless, disappeared when she heard loud external speech a rare case.
Determining the physiological foundations of negative symptom schizophrenia is considerably more difficult than comparable determinations among those patients manifesting overt symptoms. However a study reported in Neuro-psychiatry Review Begany, August established that NMDA receptor hypo-function-specifically reduced activity of GCP II, a glutamate enzyme-was associated with reduced functioning "in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and temporal cortex of patients with schizophrenia compared with controls.
The test subjects reproduced both positive and negative schizophrenia symptoms q. While it is highly tentative, it would appear from the foregoing that negative symptom schizophrenia is more closely associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction, while the disorder's positive symptom counterpart implicates structural pathway malfunction to a more significant extent.
NIMH reports persons who inherit two copies of val coding for COMT, a brain chemical that breaks down dopamine, "have a slightly higher risk of schizophrenia. These two, however, may be among many.
A report published by the Office of the Surgeon General notes that recent research points to a multiplicity of mutations that are implicated in schizophrenia onset and, further, that "these genetic differences involve hundreds of different genes and probably disrupt brain development.
According to Asher , a recent NIH-funded study has determined that victims of schizophrenia "are 14 more times more likely to have multiple copies of a gene on chromosome 7 than those in a control group. This development is particularly important because the disease victims display very similar characteristics. This, in turn, may point to prospective treatment regimes. The Surgeon General's schizophrenia report notes that "there is consistent evidence that prenatal stressors are associated with increased risk of the child developing schizophrenia in adulthood, although the mechanisms for these associations are unexplained.
There is a body of statistically significant anecdotal evidence that unfavorable environmental conditions or events in utero primarily during the fourth and fifth months of pregnancy may cause a neurological insult to the developing fetus. Children born to women pregnant during the Dutch famine were statistically more likely to develop schizophrenia. Studies conducted in Finland determined that the offspring of women who, during pregnancy, learned of the deaths of husbands during the Winter War were considerably more susceptible to schizophrenia when compared with mothers who learned of such deaths after pregnancy.
Both of these studies point to abnormal conditions or events as triggering elements, perhaps ones that aggravated preexisting, albeit only latent, conditions. If so, this would accord with the Surgeon General's thinking on a prospective connection, described supra. At present there is no cure for schizophrenia. In a very few instances, disease symptoms have completely receded for indefinite periods.
These outcomes, however interesting they may be-and, as a corollary, however much they may contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of the disease-remain idiopathic.
There are, however, a number of treatment regimes, resulting in varying shades of success. A number of anti-psychotic drugs-commonly called 'atypical'-were developed during the s. These include such commonly prescribed medicines as Olanzapine Seroquel and Aripiprazole Abilify.
While these have fewer unfavorable side-effects, residual side-effects can be severe, even life-threatening, to wit, major weight gain and diabetes onset. In addition, patients prescribed atypical drugs often suffer from muscle rigidity, spasms, uncontrollable tremors tardive dyskinesia. However beneficial these pharmacological regimes may be in containing the symptoms of schizophrenia, optimum treatment regimes include interventions and recuperative efforts that are more social than specifically medical.
These include family psychosocial interventions and vocational rehabilitation Surgeon General, While most schizophrenics cannot function independently if only because of those deficits that militate against executive functioning , many can lead quasi-independent lives if certain services-e.
Perhaps at some future date a genuine cure for schizophrenia will become available. Given the evident spectrum of symptoms and the variety of contributing genetic factors, it may well prove to be the case that such an outcome will be incremental. Indeed, it may actually be the case that schizophrenia is actually a congeries of closely related ailments, ones manifesting similar symptoms and responding in similar fashion to selected treatment regimes.
Disease containment presents a number of practical problems. The very nature of the disease militates against assured treatment. Victims, as noted supra, are deficient in executive functioning. They not only do not plan very well something essential to maintaining a treatment regime , many victims during periods of extreme disease expression, cannot plan at all. In order to maintain treatment under such circumstances, some external support must be made available.
If the victim has the support of a loving family or, for that matter, a number of dedicated friends willing to make the effort, this support component requirement may be met.
But all too often, the symptoms of schizophrenia have the effect of breaking down family relationships and alienating friends. In so many words, the disease 'defends' itself against treatment. Term Paper on Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a complex disorder characterized by hallucinations mostly being hearing voices , delusions beliefs with no basis in reality , and disturbances in speech.
Psychiatrists classify the symptoms into negative and positive categories for schizophrenia. The positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and an altered sense of self. The negative symptoms are a lack of motivation or apathy, blunted feelings, depression or social withdraw. There are three main types of Schizophrenias. The second type is Disorganized Schizophrenic; they suffer from speech and behavior problems and they have a flat of inappropriate affect.
The third type is Catatonic Schizophrenic; in this case the person gets motor immobility or excessive motor activity that is purposeless, peculiar movements, echolalia or echopraxia. In America there are about 2. That might seem like a lot, but most of the cases get overlooked. There have been studies done to see if different groups of people have a greater tendency to get the illness. But so far nothing has been proved. Some groups might seem like they are less at risk, but nothing can be proved so until then there can be no connections made.
Creating A Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Schizophrenia. Medical students can be asked to discuss a variety of issues in relation to schizophrenia disease.
Research Paper on Schizophrenia Type of paper: Research Papers Subject: Medicine Words: Schizophrenia is a well known emotional and mental disorder that causes hallucinations, paranoid and delusional behaviour.
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