Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock. When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue. Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks.
All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to volts. Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.
A short summary of the article. Current theories about the topic. What were the results obtained? What are our thought about the results compared to other relevant theories. Through the text there are references, sources of knowledge, which you've used. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth May 21, Example of a Research Paper.
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Add to my courses. Take it with you wherever you go. The Research Council of Norway. Share this page on your website: Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Write a Paper". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. While online wikis can be very helpful, they sometimes contain unverified information that you should probably not rely upon as your primary resources.
Expert interviews; if possible, interview an expert in the subject of your research. Experts can be professionals working in the field you are studying, professors with advanced degrees in the subject of interest, etc.
When you are researching your topic, take notes on the information you find. It can be difficult to recall all you have read on the subject when it comes time to start writing, especially if you are unfamiliar with the topic; having notes will significantly help with this. Be sure to note where you found the information as you take notes so you can easily cite it as you write. Organize your notes by sub-topic to keep them orderly and so you can easily find references when you are writing.
If you are using books or physical copies of magazines or journals, use sticky tabs to mark pages or paragraphs where you found useful information. You might even want to number these tabs to correspond with numbers on your note sheet for easy reference. By keeping your notes brief and simple, you can make them easier to understand and reference while writing. Don't make your notes so long and detailed that they essentially copy what's already written in your sources, as this won't be helpful to you.
Depending on the purpose of your research paper, you may find yourself needing to adopt a position or draw some conclusions about your topic. As you research the subject, ask yourself how the information you encounter fits in with the objective of your paper. For example, if you need to present two sides of an argument and then side with one, identify information that corresponds to the different viewpoints surrounding the topic and organize the sources accordingly in your notes.
Sometimes the objective of your research will be obvious to you before you even begin researching the topic; other times, you may have to do a bit of reading before you can determine the direction you want your essay to take. If you have an objective in mind from the start, you can incorporate this into online searches about your topic in order to find the most relevant resources. For example, if your objective is to outline the environmental hazards of hydraulic fracturing practices, search for that exact phrase rather than just "hydraulic fracturing.
Talk to your teacher. If you are researching for a class, ask your teacher or professor for advice or suggestions as to the direction you should take with your essay. He or she might be able to help you out by narrowing or broadening your focus or by pointing you toward useful resources. This way, you will also be able to gauge whether your teacher approves of the topic you have in mind. Avoid asking your teacher to give you a topic.
Unless your topic was assigned to you in the first place, part of the assignment is for you to choose a topic relevant to the broader theme of the class or unit.
By asking your teacher to do this for you, you risk admitting laziness or incompetence. If you have a few topics in mind but are not sure how to develop objectives for some of them, your teacher can help with this.
Plan to discuss your options with your teacher and come to a decision yourself rather than having him or her choose the topic for you from several options. Break up your essay into sub-topics. You will probably need to address several distinct aspects of your research topic in your essay.
This is an important tactic for producing a well-organized research essay because it avoids 'stream of consciousness' writing, which typically lacks order. Consider what background information is necessary to contextualize your research topic.
What questions might the reader have right out of the gate? How do you want the reader to think about the topic? Answering these kinds of questions can help you figure out how to set up your argument. Match your paper sections to the objective s of your writing. For example, if you are trying to present two sides of a debate, create a section for each and then divide them up according to the aspects of each argument you want to address. One of the most helpful things you can do when writing a research paper is to outline the various sections and primary points of the essay.
Do this before you begin writing so you can visualize how each of the essay's parts will fit together. This will also allow you to rearrange components of the paper to make it flow logically. Some people like to include a few sentences under each heading in their outline to create a sort of "mini-essay" before they begin writing.
Others find that a simple ordered list of topics is sufficient. Do whatever works best for you. If you have time, write your outline a day or two before you start writing and come back to it several times. This will give you an opportunity to think about how the pieces of your essay will best fit together.
Rearrange things in your outline as many times as you want until you have a structure you are happy with. Research papers, unlike creative writing pieces, usually adhere to a specific style guides governing the way sources must be cited and various other aspects of writing mechanics. If you are writing a research essay for a class, your teacher will probably specify which style the essay must conform to. Consult your teacher if you aren't sure what style to use. If you are assigned a specific format, you must take care to adhere to guidelines for text formatting and citations.
Some computer programs such as EndNote allow you to construct a library of resources which you can then set to a specific format type; then you can automatically insert in-text citations from your library and populate a references section at the end of the document.
This is an easy way to make sure your citations match your assigned style format. You should set realistic writing goals for yourself so you can stay on task without feeling overburdened.
It is a good idea to create a schedule and set aside blocks of time each day to work on specific parts of your essay. This way you aren't stuck writing nonstop for two days to meet your deadline and you can check things off your list as you complete them.
You may wish to start by simply assigning yourself a certain number of pages per day. Divide the number of pages you are required to write by the number of days you have to finish the essay; this is the number of pages minimum that you must complete each day in order to pace yourself evenly. If possible, leave a buffer of at least one day between finishing your paper and the due date. This will allow you to review your finished product and edit it for errors.
This will also help in case something comes up that slows your writing progress. In this section, introduce your topic and establish the purpose for your essay. If you intend to investigate a debated topic, state this in your introduction. You want the reader to have a good idea of what the essay is about and how it is constructed by reading your introduction.
Save your opinions and any conclusions you've drawn for the rest of the essay. For most papers, one or two paragraphs will suffice. For really long essays, you may need to expand this. Don't assume your reader already knows the basics of the topic unless it truly is a matter of common knowledge.
For example, you probably don't need to explain in your introduction what biology is, but you should define less general terms such as "eukaryote" or "polypeptide chain. Build the body of your essay. This is the meat of your paper, on which you should place the majority of your focus.
The length and detail of your essay will determine the form of its body, but at a minimum this should include any key arguments, any research methods used and results obtained in cases where you performed original research , and your main research findings. Alternatively, you can consider moving this to the introductory section, but only if your essay is short and only minimal background discussion is needed.
This is the part of your paper where organization and structure are most important. Arrange sections within the body so that they flow logically and the reader is introduced to ideas and sub-topics before they are discussed further.
Depending upon the length and detail of your paper, the end of the body might contain a discussion of findings.
This kind of section serves to wrap up your main findings but does not explicitly state your conclusions which should come in the final section of the essay. Avoid repetition in the essay body.
Keep your writing concise, yet with sufficient detail to address your objective s or research question s. Cite your references properly. One of the biggest mistakes you can make when writing a research paper is to fail to properly cite your sources.
Passing off someone else's ideas as your own, whether intentional or not, is plagiarism, and it could land you a failing grade or even expulsion from your school. Take the time to ensure you are citing information the right way by following these guidelines: Always use quotation marks when using exact quotes from another source. If someone already said or wrote the words you are using, you must quote them this way!
Place your in-text citation at the end of the quote. To include someone else's ideas in your essay without directly quoting them, you can restate the information in your own words; this is called paraphrasing.
Although this does not require quotation marks, it should still be accompanied by an in-text citation. This section stands apart from the essay body in that it is devoted solely to stating the conclusions you have drawn from your research. Avoid discussing details of your research or presenting results in this section. You may wish to rephrase your study objective and state how your findings address that goal.
You should aim for one or two paragraphs, if possible. Conclusions should directly correspond to research discussed in the essay body. In other words, make sure your conclusions logically connect to the rest of your essay and provide explanations when necessary. If your topic is complex and involves lots of details, you should consider including a brief summary of the main points of your research in your conclusion.
Revisit your thesis or objective. Once you've completed your first draft, you should go back to your introductory paragraph s and evaluate whether your essay accomplishes the stated goals you presented in the beginning.
A good essay will thoroughly address any questions or unknowns posed in its introduction. If your conclusions do not logically follow the stated purpose or objective of your essay, then you will need to fix this.
Making changes to the discussion and conclusion sections instead of the introduction often requires a less extensive rewrite. Doing this also prevents you from removing anything from the beginning of your essay that could accidentally make subsequent portions of your writing seem out of place. It is okay to revise your thesis once you've finished the first draft of your essay!
People's views often change once they've done research on a topic. Just make sure you don't end up straying too far from your assigned topic if you do this. You don't necessarily need to wait until you've finished your entire draft to do this step.
In fact, it is a good idea to revisit your thesis regularly as you write. This can save you a lot of time in the end by helping you keep your essay content on track.
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Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide. How to Write a Research Paper. When studying at higher levels of school and throughout college, you will likely be asked to prepare research papers. A research paper can be used for exploring and identifying scientific, technical and.
To fully understand what information particular parts of the paper should discuss, here’s another research paper example including some key parts of the paper. The research paper is a type of work which requires students to pick a topic, undertake research and analyze the findings. It is a far cry from any poetic or creative writing pieces. Everything should we-structured and clear.