Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. Commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol , England , in , and the American Francis Wolle patented a machine for automated bag-making in Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles , transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons.
These innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.
In , Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering. In-plant recycling has long been common for producing packaging materials. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been economical for many years: Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use. Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry.
Other military packaging must transport materiel , supplies, foods, etc. Packaging problems encountered in World War II led to Military Standard or "mil spec" regulations being applied to packaging, which was then designated "military specification packaging".
As a prominent concept in the military, mil spec packaging officially came into being around , due to operations in Iceland experiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging. In most cases, mil spec packaging solutions such as barrier materials, field rations , antistatic bags , and various shipping crates are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements.
As of [update] , the packaging sector accounted for about two percent of the gross national product in developed countries. About half of this market was related to food packaging. Packaging and package labeling have several objectives .
Packaging may be of several different types. For example, a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.
Custom packaging is an evolutionary use of modern materials. Thermoforming and vacuum forming allow for expanded capabilities for large trays, displays, and specialty needs. Thermoforming is a method which uses vacuum, heat, and pressure to form the desired material into a shape determined by its mold.
This type of packaging is often used by the cosmetic and medical industry. Packaging may be described in relation to the type of product being packaged: It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary.
For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when used to combine smaller packages, or tertiary packaging when used to facilitate some types of distribution, such as to affix a number of cartons on a pallet. Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized.
Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer rights and safety, for example the CE marking or the estimated sign that notes conformance to EU weights and measures accuracy regulations.
Examples of environmental and recycling symbols include the recycling symbol , the recycling code which could be a resin identification code , and the "Green Dot". Food packaging may show food contact material symbols. In the European Union , products of animal origin which are intended to be consumed by humans have to carry standard, oval-shaped EC identification and health marks for food safety and quality insurance reasons.
Country of Origin Labeling is often used. Some products might use QR codes or similar matrix barcodes. Packaging may have visible registration marks and other printing calibration and troubleshooting cues. Technologies related to shipping containers are identification codes, bar codes , and electronic data interchange EDI.
These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channel.
Each has an essential function: Small parcel carriers often have their own formats. RFID labels for shipping containers are also increasingly used. A Wal-Mart division, Sam's Club , has also moved in this direction and is putting pressure on its suppliers to comply.
Shipments of hazardous materials or dangerous goods have special information and symbols labels, placards, etc. Username Password I forgot my password Register new account. Track Your Paper Check submitted paper Due to migration of article submission systems, please check the status of your submitted manuscript in the relevant system below: Username Password I forgot my password.
Track accepted paper Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. More about CiteScore Impact Factor: View More on Journal Insights. Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus. Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features.
The journal will mainly publish original research papers, review articles and short communications in the following areas: Utilization of mango peel extracts on the biodegradable films for active packaging A. View All Most Downloaded Articles.
Development and characterization of biodegradable antimicrobial packaging films based on polycaprolactone, starch and pomegranate rind hybrids Saud Khalid Long Yu User Account Log in Register Help. My Content 1 Recently viewed 1 Packaging Research. Show Summary Details Closed journal. See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable.
Marketing Research Article: What are the keys to using marketing research to develop and evaluate package designs? This articles details the best practices for conducting packaging research in order to accurately understand and interpret the results.
Packaging Research is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original, high-quality research on topics broadly related to packaging paydayloanslexington.gq objective is to offer a journal adapted to the diversity of scientific disciplines and questions that may be addressed within the variety of packaging roles.
This books is sectioned into 4 chapters – packaging that protects, preserves, performs, and promotes. At the beginning of each chapter is an overview. Within each chapter there are many examples, each accompanied with a . Food Packaging and Shelf Life caters to the needs of scientists, material scientists, food chemists and microbiologists in the area of food packaging and shelf life. The journal will mainly publish original research papers, review .