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❶To keep track of this market, companies should continuously monitor customer data and be on the lookout for changes in their strategies to increase sales. The country's ecommerce sector can be divided into travel and non-travel.

thesis on purchase intention




Her drive to pursue a higher nursing education, and her ability to do so, can be attributed to her work ethic, her academic inclination, and the environment at Unitek College. Clinicals were a chance to put her classroom learning into practice.

Alessandra also worked hard in the classroom. I like the reading material and the subjects in the nursing programs. She passed it on the first try. Volunteering was already a hobby of hers, and she enjoyed being able to combine her volunteer work with her nursing education. She entered the Vocational Nursing program, and continues her education, because she wants to help others.

She is truly committed to nursing for the right reasons. There are so many fields in nursing that you can do that. Her BSN degree will most definitely help her down that path, where she can take on a role in patient advocacy or healthcare policy. And we are excited to see what she does! We are in the middle of National Nurses week. The companies in this industry might know which promotional tool is doing well with respect to their own customer base, but they couldn't find easily which is doing well in the industry.

So this study gives an insight of which promotional tool is leading to purchase intention which ultimately leads to increase in sales especially in the online apparel industry. Customers are being bounced with lot of information through direct mailings, Advertisements, and several other sources. Importantly because of advent of multiple sources of purchasing like malls, super bazaars, online portals etc the decision making had become more difficult for customer.

This study mainly deals in knowing the purchase intention of the people who are buying apparel online in various portals. There are several studies conducted especially in brick and mortar model of retail that have proved that sales promotional tools have significant impact on purchase intention of the customer. Even promotion of the sales promotional tools like coupons, rebates, price discounts also have significant impact on both purchase intention Rizwan, M.

All online retailers are seeing this as a very important thing as the benefits that are being provided by the original provider will be decided based on number of customers who are buying on your online portal.

So, if people are switching to other players especially in this industry the switching cost is very low that it is just a matter of a click. So, all retailers have considered this as a very critical aspect of doing their business. E-commerce industry has been one of very few booming industries around the world. Many Companies under this industry have grown to peaks and because of the barrier to entry is very low huge competition has been build which slowly turned into an unhealthy competition and many companies went into Collaborations that had happened in the recent past because of the immediate profits expecting from the Venture capitalists that have funded the companies.

E-commerce companies have found Sales promotions as one of the best ways to persuade customers to purchase products. As we can see E-commerce companies are doing Various Sales Promotion to increase their sales by framing their promotional offers in most innovative ways that might end up the customer in Buying.

So my focus is on understanding the influence of these Sales Promotions that the companies in this industry coming up with by spending lot of time and money to make the Apparel shoppers to prefer online purchase from their online portal. Sales Promotion has been considered as the most stimulating technique of promotion for influencing the purchase intention. It is a valuable tool for both manufacturers and retailers. The study revealed that Product price, Discount promotions has a significant impact on purchase intention.

A study done by Harimukthi, A. In a study conducted by Rizwan, M. It came to know that there is no relationship between purchase intention and free sample. The same study helps us to know that social surroundings has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer. In a Study conducted by Hayan Dib, M. In another study conducted by Soni Neha, V. Price pack and rebate are seemed to be insignificant in this research.

The same study also revelaed that Promotional labels produce high percieved value higher brand awareness produces higher purchase intention. In a study conducted by Patrali Chaterjee in on 'Advertised versus unexpected next purchase Coupons: Consumer Satisfaction, Perception of value and fairness' revealed that the unexpected purchase coupons leads to higher purchase satisfaction but lower perceptions comapred to advertised coupons whereas Strong purchase satisfaction where there are unexpected and unrestricted start date coupons.

Companies spend huge amounts of money on Coupons and make their Sales strategy by making sure that the face value of the coupons doesn't cost more than they are worth in increased sales. On the similar lines a study was conducted in by Barat, Somjit; Paswan, Audhesh K that revealed that for low face value coupons the intention to redeem is positively associated with face value and for higher face values of the intention is more or less unchanged.

The study also revealed that the intention to redeem the coupon and the percieved sticker price of the product is positive at the lower levels of the coupons face value but becomes negative at higher face values. Around 15 research articles were collected where the research was conducted in various parts of the world. These articles were reviewed and then some research gaps were found that gave me an insight to take a research on this concerned topic which is considered to be one of the hot topics of ecommerce industry in India as companies are not breaking even and spending huge amounts of money on sales promotions to attract customers.

So after the review of various literatures on the bases on the knowledge I gained I have decided to conduct the research on 'Influence of online sales promotional tools on purchase intention of the customer in the apparel industry'. Ecommerce companies are in infancy stage as of now. So for ecommerce companies time has come to take this as a advantage and grow faster.

At the same time companies are spending a bomb on their promotional campaigns to attract customers which is affecting their returns and margins and at the end of the day their profits. Too much spending on sales promotions might also create negative vibes of converting users into customers. All companies are in a hunting spree for customers and hence they are even ready to spend huge amounts to attract them through various ways of promotions.

Making use of every sales promotional tool is always a costly thing without knowing which one is doing well and how innovatively we can attract customers by making use of it. Distribution of coupons, vouchers is not that difficult in ecommerce compared to brick and mortar but definitely if not planned properly which distribution channel to be used it would turn to be like shooting in the dark blind folded. Attitude towards coupons has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer.

Attitude towards product bundling has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer. Attitude towards price discounts has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer.

Attitude towards point of purchase displays on the purchase intention of the customer. It involves studying the customer's mindset about the online sales promotional tools and their intention towards going for particular promotional tool during their purchase ' The main aim of this study is to find out if there is any influence of online sales promotional tools on the purchase intention of the customer in the apparel industry.

The preliminary investigation was done accordingly. The various media of promotions that the companies are using were also listed down in an attempt to understand their influence on a customer purchase intention. The factors for purchase intention in the ecommerce industry can be obtained from the literature review.

The primary data would be collected by administrating questionnaire. Online shoppers Apparel websites o Students o Working Professionals. The data has been collected through personal administration of questionnaires and online administration of questionnaires. The 5 main categories included were namely 1. The sample has been categorized into 4 namely 1 less than Rs. The Respondents exhibited the following pattern in terms of their latest online purchase.

Pie-chart showing the last purchase pattern AGE The Respondents exhibited the following pattern in terms of their age. The sample has been categorized into 5 namely 1 Myntra 2 Jabong 3 Flipkart 4 Yepme 5 zovi 6 others.

Attitude towards coupons has a significant impact on the purchase intention of the customer Null hypothesis Ho: Attitude towards coupons does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards coupons has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Linear regression analysis is performed by taking purchase intention as dependent variable and Attitude towards coupons, Attitude towards product bundling, Attitude towards price discounts, Attitude towards Point of purchase displays and Attitude towards rebates as predictor independent variables.

Results of the regression analysis reported the fitted regression model as: This means that Results of the t test are reported in Table 4. Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards coupons is?? Result of the t test indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant effect Ho: This means that attitude towards coupons, controlling for the effect of attitude towards POP displays, Attitude towards rebates, Attitude towards price discounts and Attitude towards product bundling, does exhibit a significant effect on purchase intention.

The study hypothesis H1 is supported. To test the seriousness of the problem of Multi-collinearity, tolerance level and variance inflation factor values are computed.

None of the independent variables reported high VIF value. In fact, none of the independent variables reported VIF more than 2. Therefore the regression analysis does not suffer the problem of multi-Collinearity. There is no problem of inflation of standard errors and as such there is no serious multi-collinearity problem.

Residual analysis is performed to validate important assumptions of regression analysis including normality of residuals and constant error variance homoscedasticity of residuals. Descriptive statistics of residuals of the regression analysis is reported in Table 4. Histogram of the residuals indicates no heavy departure from normality.

Residual plot of standardized predicated value against standardized residual values is reported in Figure 4.

Residual plot indicates a very healthy plot with no specific pattern of residuals random scatter of residual values. This means that the assumption of linearity, normality and constant error variance are satisfied. Deviation N Predicted Value 1. Is the attitude towards product bundling has an influence on the purchase intention? Attitude towards product bundling does not have significant effect on purchase intention??

Attitude towards product bundling has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards product bundling is??

This means that attitude towards product bundling, controlling for the effect of attitude towards POP displays, Attitude towards rebates, Attitude towards price discounts and Attitude towards product bundling, does not exhibit a significant effect on purchase intention. Residual plot of standardized predicated value against standardized residual values is reported in Figure 2.

Is the attitude towards price discounts has an influence on the purchase intention? Attitude towards price discounts does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards price discounts has a significant effect on purchase intention?? Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards price discounts is?? The study hypothesis H1 is not supported. Attitude towards POP displays does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards POP displays has a significant effect on purchase intention??

Estimated regression coefficient for Attitude towards point of purchase displays is?? Attitude towards rebates does not have significant effect on purchase intention?? Attitude towards rebates has a significant effect on purchase intention?? The conceptual form of the model is. Is the purchase intention same across income groups? Mean score for purchase intention is not same for different Income groups. There is no significant difference in mean purchase intention score across different Income groups.

Mean purchase intention score across different Income groups is not same. Inspection of descriptive statistics indicates difference in preference across various Income groups. Assumption of equality of variance is tested using Levene's test.

Results of the Levene's test reports that null hypothesis of no significant difference in variances cannot be rejected at. The equality of variance assumption is satisfied. As a remedy to violation of homogeneity of variance assumption, Welch's robust test for equality of means is performed. Results of one factor ANOVA test indicates that null hypothesis of equality of mean score for repurchase intention can be rejected at.

This means that null hypothesis is not rejected and purchase intention is significantly different across different Income categories. The alpha coefficient for the 5 items is. It has created an entire new economy which has huge potential and is also changing the way businesses are done in India. The reason for its phenomenal raise is that both buyers and sellers have win-win situation.

Rising incomes is an important factor that is driving the purchasing of goods and services online through internet which is considered more convenient for the consumers. Indian ecommerce is considered to be in nascent stage as of now and it is considered to amplify in the coming years. There are some weak links which were being corrected with the help of technology and for sure we can expect that more easy, convenient and secured ecommerce business will be here to stay.

The rise in the number of internet users, increase in the acceptability of online payments, favorable demographics and advent of internet enabled devices are some of the crucial factors that are driving the growth of the ecommerce industry in India.

The number of online transactions is expected to increase from 11million in to 38 million by Venture capitalists and private equity players have shown the faith in this sector and you can get this from the kind of investments they have done in this industry from the past.

Some innovative ways of doing business had transformed this sector to greater heights. Players have come up with most innovative business models taking ecommerce as their platform and started reaching their target customers in most attractive ways.

Some key concerns that are surrounding this industry are the inventory management and logistics capabilities. In order to sustain the heat that this sector has got in the recent days government also should come up with some dedicated ecommerce laws like sales tax laws which need to revise as it is creating problems for retailers especially while deciding the warehouse location. Modes of e-commerce transactions Besides growing internet penetration the change in consumer mindset also had great impact on the growth of this industry.

The country's ecommerce sector can be divided into travel and non-travel. Some of the key enablers for this industry are 1. Internet penetration as of now in India is at Government has come front in improving this penetration and recently it has declared Cr for internet cable laying 2. The supporting ecosystem for E-commerce 3. In addition to the growth of Laptop, Smartphone has revolutionized how internet is being accessed. Taking this as an advantage companies are spending money to be in contact with the customers continuously through their Mobile apps.

Transformation in the payment landscape: The cards per capita in India are one of the lowest in the world i. Indian E-commerce industry is a 2billion dollar industry which is a very small fraction compared to global industry size. Many aspects like growing internet penetration and mobile penetration are supporting this industry and expected to grow 10times in the coming decade The internet has already charging the way connected Indians shop online.

Not only opening up a new world of lower prices and choices but it has also emerged as wealth-creating for many online entrepreneurs. Many e-commerce companies which were started in the early of evolution of e-commerce in India haven't seen much profits, but slowly as the internet user base being increasing day by day they are seeing a double digit growth slowly.

Many ecommerce portals mainly in retail domain are experiencing phenomenal growth with online transactions growing by leaps and bounds every month. Most shopped categories in are electronic gadgets, lifestyle and jewelry.

Behavior of online shoppers of various age groups. E-commerce has been radical effect on the business that are located all over the world.

It is more powerful than the traditional resources that were adopted by businesses all over the world. With the aid of ecommerce it is possible for people to shop online from their comforts of their home irrespective of their geographical location.

Ecommerce has been able to remove the geographical barriers successfully and helped customers to come in contact with vendors without hassles. The impact of ecommerce is one that has bought in a drastic change in the traditional market. It is one that has been welcomed with open arms as it has clicked immensely for many businesses and now most of the businesses who are not present on ecommerce cannot exist.

Because of ecommerce many small businesses have been benefited as they no longer require physical offices to cater to the people of particular geographic location. The target audiences are also getting benefitted as they can be reached without wasting time and economic resources. Many companies are using effective internet marketing techniques so as to reach the target market with less effort. The impact of ecommerce on the global economy has influenced everything from the production to the service levels that many companies are able to do business with.

The change is very significant. With ecommerce these businesses are faced with the main challenge of having to stay ahead of their market competitors with the technological transformation. Countries that are not economically sound were been effected by the advent of ecommerce. Many companies have enhanced sales and increased their profits with ecommerce.

E-commerce was initially driven by the convenience of global shopping from your computer but now it is driven by convenience of global shopping from any location and at any time Goldman Sachs, Most of the ecommerce companies are doing ecommerce business which is business to consumer where they won't be getting more margins so it's high time for all the e-commerce companies to also to B2B sales so as to get profits which intern let the venture capitalists to pour more money that can be used to expand operations and serve better.

In today's e-commerce sites routinely experience transaction closure rates in the range of 3 to 5 percent of the total visitors - the primary reason for the failure is most of the sites are too generic - no personalization whatsoever.

Most of the shoppers spend a significant amount of time by going through multiple websites and related comparison websites and still they cannot make a quick decision - average time to make a decision to buy any product online is between 2 hours to a week - also, they confine to a couple of choices. Many e-commerce companies are facing funding problems. So the companies and also VC's are finding Mergers and closures could be the right way to get their money back and therefore this has become a rippling effect of many companies merging which could become a threatening situation in the coming years to the commerce industry.

Some of the mergers that happened this year and last year are ' In April , baby product-seller Babyoye. Most of the e-commerce sites won't be sharing any financial information publicly as they were not listed, but venture capital investors in such firms privately admit that many of these ecommerce websites won't even reach break-even point soon.

So investors are now actively pushing for mergers in India's crowded online marketplace in the hope of saving on operating costs, thereby turning a profit faster. But this is far from the scenario that investors and entrepreneurs had envisioned from India's e-commerce industry. It seemed even a small part of the country's 1. Many of the startups founded in India during this time were focused on e-commerce.

Many film industry stars also pushed a lot of money into industry by picking up the stake in some of the big travel and ticket booking sites like yatra.


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The concept of purchase intention is rooted in psychological and is extensively used in behavioral studies (Dodd & Supa, ). Purchase intention is being characterized as a behavioral tendency that the consumer will purchase the product (Monroe & Krishnan, ) and as an important indicator for the actual purchasing decision (Tan, ).

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Afterwards, purchase intention and factors which have influence on purchase intention and behaviour are discussed. Finally, there is a discussion of cause-related marketing contextualising in .  The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase in is thought to be the greatest “real estate” deal in history. It was an experiment to incorporate different cultures to become one frontier.

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A non-probability sample is a abbreviation of a population in which little or no Exploring the factors affecting purchase intention of smartphone (McDaniel & Gates, ). Convenience sampling is chosen to run the test. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. Ecommerce sector in India is considered to be the sector where huge developments and growth opportunities are lying.