While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves.
This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field. When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.
Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics.
End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located.
For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.
Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix.
It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc.
A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation. Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public.
Museum of Modern Art, New York. Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date.
When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode. However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. The location of an online work should include a URL. The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting.
If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.
The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.
Present tense should be used to introduce quoted material and when you express your own opinion regarding that material. If there is more than one author, include all names inside the parenthesis as stated in the source, or list them followed be et. If the direct quotation is less than four typed lines, you can place them within quotation marks. If there are two or more paragraphs, the first line of each additional paragraph should be indented by another quarter inch beyond the default one-inch indentation.
If there are more than two works by the same author, include the title of the work in the beginning or inside the parenthesis in abbreviated form. This is the page that immediately follows the text of the paper. If there is no author, alphabetize the important words in work cited. Different sources follow different formatting rules. For example, formatting of articles or information derived from books, magazines or other literature is different from those obtained from online sources.
This is a short synopsis or summary of the whole research paper. It includes the objectives, results and the conclusion. Introduction of your topic: The research method or procedure you used and the corresponding results: The conclusion and your own interpretation of the topic: All the parts mentioned above are not required when writing in MLA style.
The only requirements include:. Your last name and page number placed on the right side of each pages. Students are usually asked to writing a research paper as a requirement to pass a certain course. Starting one is a bit of a challenge when you are the one to choose which topic to study and write about. In most cases, it is usually related to the course or field of study. However, the options are endless. It is best to write about something unique to set you apart from other students in your class.
As much as possible, stay away from these topics because chances are, a lot of students will do the same thing hoping to be able to write something great.
Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76–80 in the MLA Handbook).
Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced. The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title.
This resource contains a sample MLA paper that adheres to the updates. To download the MLA sample paper, select the MLA Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above. Research Papers. Writing a Research Paper; Genre and the Research Paper; Choosing a Topic; Identifying Audiences; MLA Style. MLA Style Introduction; MLA . MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
MLA Formatting Guide. MLA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using MLA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in MLA format, your paper should be formatted using the MLA guidelines as well. Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave . Aug 25, · How to Write a Paper for School in MLA Format MLA Format is commonly required of middle school, high school and college students. It is a very professional way to format a paper, and, even if not required, is a nice, scholarly touch%().