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Phd Thesis On Nanoelectronics Nanotechnology

❶Another significant aspect that is to be considered is the avoiding bias in the study.

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Introduction to Nanotechnology

It is majorly due to wide range of advanced functional properties that can be brought to the packaging materials Imran et al. Until now the food packaging industry emphasized packaging foods in standard packing film made from flexible plastics. These led to a provision of protective, oxygen-free atmosphere. However, the food materials were still slightly permeable to oxygen and other gases Nanotechnology in the Food Packaging Industry, This means that the protective atmosphere provided by flexible plastics may leak out thereby leading to entry of oxygen.

This may cause damage to food. This is where nanotechnology shows its effect where a coating just a few nanometers thick can be considered as sufficient to create an impermeable layer Neethirajan and Jayas, This may happen without compromising with the flexibility or leading to increased cost. There has been slow and limited application of nanotechnology in the food industry.

There are several concerns about the extent to which there are can be leaching of nanomaterials into the food. The effect of nanomaterials on the health of people is another concern in this area.

Nanosilver, for instance, if enters the body in any quantity, may upset the balance of beneficial organisms that help in digestion Rashidi and Khosravi-Darani, There are some concerns regarding the use and safety of nanofoods.

The concerns make it important to demonstrate that the nanoparticles will be solubilized or digested in the gut. It also needs to be confirmed that free nanoparticles do not get entry into the blood Huang, Engineered nanoparticles ENP additives have added to the issues associated with nanotechnology in the area of food packaging.

This is because toxicological properties of most of ENPs are not yet known Fulekar, Growing scientific evidence indicates that cellular barriers can be crossed by free nanoparticles. These may then reach to those targets in the human body where larger equivalents have not yet reached. Biotechnology has led to the invention of intelligent packaging. Through it, different sensors in can be used in food packaging.

These can indicate information about the quality of food to the customer. With the help of biotechnology, these sensors can be coupled with the biochemical reaction taking place inside the food. These help in indicating the deterioration of quality of food through reactions such as lipid oxidation. Another application of biotechnology in food packaging is use of gas indicators.

They are another type of intelligent packaging option Stampfli et al. Thermo chromic inks changes color either with temperature or record highest temperatures are another application of biotechnology in food packaging.

These are sensitive to temperature and thus lead to improved packaging options for food. Moreover, biotechnology is used for developing food packaging materials which are completely biodegradable Shimasaki, Further, biotechnology finds its application in developing packaging for food which is efficient at reducing spoilage. With the help of biotechnology, such plastic wraps could be created which help in preventing food from getting spoiled.

These inhibit the growth of bacteria Panesar and Maewaha, Plastics that prevent biofilm formation have been created by combining natural antibiotic substances and controlled- release biodegradable polymers.

Intelligent packaging technology has provided innovative options for food packaging. Smart plastics which have been used for packaging foods indicate deterioration of food quality Coles and Frewer, Avoidance of food waste is an important aspect of food chain.

Intelligent packaging options involve the use of modified atmosphere package. This helps in significantly cutting down the amount of food wastage. This is because, smart packaging options help in reassuring the person that the food is still healthy to be consumed. These also indicate the part of food which is stale and needs to be discarded. In this way, application of nanotechnology helps in reducing food wastage. There are many spoilage organisms which are aerobic, in order to stay alive, these require oxygen.

Application of nanotechnology in food packaging has allowed for the development of modified atmosphere packaging. This type of packaging works by replacing the air in pre- packaged fresh foods with a mixture of gas Bradley et. This mixture is low in oxygen.

This reduces the growth of microbes and helps in maintaining the color, texture and flavor of food. The mixture also contains high content of carbon dioxide. This slows down the growth of gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas and enterobacteria. In this manner, food safety is ensured. Shelf life of food is define as the length of time for which it can be stored without becoming unfit for consumption Stelle, It is the recommended maximum time for which fresh produce can be stored.

Expiration dates provide guidance on the basis of normal and expected handling as well as exposure to temperature. The safety of a food is not ensured by expiration date. As long as the canned foods are not exposed to freezing temperatures or above C, they are safe to be used Mahalik and Nambiar, Even after the expiration date, most of the food items are still edible.

Also, a production which has passed its shelf life may be safe for consumption. However, there is no guarantee of its quality. Shelf life is dependent on the gradation mechanism of product.

It cannot be adequately regarded as an indicator of the time for which food can be safely stored. Various researches have carried out in this area.

Duncan carried out a study on applications of nanotechnology in food safety. The author focused on barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. Further, discussion was done on the commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies Duncan, Siegrist et al, conducted study on perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and food packaging.

The authors examined the perceptions of people on 19 nanotechnology applications. It was found that nanotechnology food packaging was less problematic as compared to nanotechnology foods Siegrist et al, Sozer and kokini studied applications of nanotechnology in food sector.

The authors summarized the applications of nanotechnology which are relevant to food and nutraceuticals Sozer and Kokini, However, none of the research has focused particularly the application of nanotechnology to food packaging. Therefore a gap has been left by the previous researches. In order to fill this gap, the present research was carried out. Through this, the researcher focused on applications of nanotechnology in packaging of food.

The traditional food packaging industry makes use of multilayer structures so as to assist in providing different properties and functionalities to packaging. These multilayers are very expensive and are also difficult to recycle. Other than this there is also a presence of several issues in terms of providing foods a small shell life, lack of food safety and quality while packaging foods.

There is also an issue of gas and water vapour permeability through the plastics that affect food. Hence, there is a need to design packaging strategies that are both functional and cost effective in nature. The present research will shed light on how nanotechnology can be used in food packaging industry. It will further asses the ways by which nanotechnology has brought a substantial improvement in the overall food packaging. The aim of the study is to analyze the applications of nanotechnology in food packaging.

There are various limitations that were faced by researcher while carrying out the present research on application of nanotechnology in food packaging. A quantitative design was not adopted for the present study.

Failure to do so would significantly limit the ability of the study to make broader generalizations from the results Structure, However, qualitative design did not reduce the quality of findings of the study. Moreover, the researcher was required to explore and describe the details of the ways in which nanotechnology is used in food packaging. This could be better done with a qualitative design. It also provided flexibility to the researcher as modifications could be done after the study began.

Another limitation of the study was that primary data was not used. The present study about applications of nanotechnology was based on only secondary data collection methods. Due to this, the researcher may not have been able to collect the data which is tailored specifically for the purpose of the study. Also, it may be possible that the researcher missed on collecting recent data.

This is because, primary data helps in gathering recent information about the research topic Primary Research — Advantages, However, it can be critically analysed that secondary method was more suitable for accomplishing the purpose of present research.

This is because, applications of nanotechnology is a sensitive topic due to the concerns of customers about the adverse impacts of nanomaterials that pass into the food from the package. Therefore, it may be possible that honest information could not have obtained from the respondents had the researcher collected primary data on it.

Hence, secondary research was chosen for the present study which helped in looking into the aspects of application of nanotechnology in food packaging in a much more detailed manner. For carrying out the research, limited time was available to the researcher. This could have limited the information that was referred to by the researcher. When a research is to be carried out, a number of interdependent activities are to be performed Ihantola and Kihn, Data is to be collected, literature is read for carrying out critical analysis, findings are to be obtained and discussed etc.

All these tasks require time so that the research can be conducted in an efficient manner. However, the researcher had limited time to undertake the present research on applications of nanotechnology in food packaging. But, efforts were made by the researcher to study the aspects related to applications of nanotechnology in detail. It has provided convenient options of improving the shelf life of food.

Nanotechnology plays an important role in bringing a wide range of advanced functional properties to packaging materials. It has helped in creating packaging materials and films that form a part of intelligent packaging. Nanotechnology applications in food sector comprise of smart packaging options which include biosensors, gas indicators, and thermo chromic inks etc. Moreover, those packaging materials have been created which act as a barrier between food and external environment and help in preventing spoilage of edible items.

Nanofilms, which are coating materials of just a few nanometer thickness, is another application of nanotechnology. Food spoilage can be reduced by controlling the factors that lead to its deterioration. Food gets contaminated due to growth of micro-organisms and action of enzymes which are present inside the food.

Microbial growth occurs only when the microorganisms get suitable temperature, moisture, air and ph. Therefore, food spoilage can be reduced if optimum growth conditions are not provided to the microbes Bradley et al, Thermo chromic ink helps in providing optimal shelf life through an easily mixed two part ink system. This helps in communicating freshness as well as expiration of food item. There have been various innovations in nanotechnology with the use of gold and silver particles in packaging.

In the present dissertation, literature review focuses on various applications of nanotechnology in food packaging. Various studies on the research topic have been critically analyzed. Duncan carried out a study on applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety. The author discussed several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging. Apart from covering the technical aspects of this topic, the author also focused upon understanding the current commercial status as well as the understanding of health implications of use of nanotechnology in food packaging Duncan, Alfadul and Elneshwy conducted a study on use of nanotechnology in food processing packaging and safety.

The authors conducted a review and paid special attention to reflection on food quality and safety Alfadul and Elneshwy, The journal articles used by the authors were up- to- date. However, no information has been provided about appraising the articles.

This suggests that the quality of articles was not evaluated before using them. Similar to this, Goyal and Goyal conducted a critical review to study the use of nanotechnology in food packaging. The authors studied about Nano-composite based edible material and their properties and applications.

Further, legal and ethical barriers were also explored in the study Goyal and Goyal, Buzby carried out research on applications of nanotechnology for food. The authors addressed six questions about nanotechnology in their article. These questions were related to food applications of nanotechnology Buzby, Aspects related to safety of nanotechnology for food application were discussed. Further, the authors explored potential environmental impacts and key marketing concerns regarding nanotechnology.

The article contributed to developing a broader understanding about the issues associated with nanotechnology for food packaging. Ravichandran explored the applications of nanotechnology in food and food processing. The article focused upon innovative green approaches, opportunities and uncertainties in the global market.

The author explore areas such as nano-dispersion and nanocapsules. As per the findings of the study, nanosensors, which are placed in the packaging material, help in detecting spoilage Ravichandran, Micro fluidic sensors have a major advantage of being small sized.

Due to this, they can be used for detecting compounds of interest in only micro litres of sample volume. According to the study, novel food packaging is the most promising benefit that nanotechnology has offered. It was found that the nanotechnology industry is struggling with the concerns of public over safety. However, the food packaging industry has gained pace with the introduction of nanotechnology products. As per the findings of the research, applications of nanotechnology in food packaging comprised of nanolaminates, nanocomposite bottles etc.

Today, the customers demand a number of features in packaging of food products. They want the quality, freshness and safety of foods to be protected. According to the authors, nanotechnology uses microscopic particles and is an effective and affordable option Mishra et al, One of the applications of nanotechnology in food packaging is that it can be designed to release antioxidants, enzymes and flavours in the food to extend its shelf life.

The study found that nano-coatings are new innovation of nanotechnology. These are edible coatings and films which are recently being used as a packaging option for a variety of foods such as meats, vegetables, fruits, candies, bakery products etc.

Further, novel laminate films can be created with the help of nanotechnology. These are suited to be used in food and dairy products Mishra et al, The authors made a classification of the latest advancements that have been made in the field of nanotechnology.

Further, Multi Criteria Decision Analysis was done so that the most relevant nanomaterials in the area of food packaging Reig et al, Robinson carried out research on value chains and explored the governance and innovation involved in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has been considered as a promising techno science which enable a vast array of products. The research focussed on investigating governance of nano applications in food packaging by analysing the industrial value chain.

As per the views of author, this will not only help in identifying the activities but also the potential impacts of nanotechnology. In order to investigate the techno- specific promises that stem from nanotechnology, it is important to focus on value chain. Nanotechnology has entered into various parts of agri-food sector.

Therefore it is important to explore the emerging governance arrangements of nanotechnology with respect to food packaging Robinson, According to Bradley et al. It can also affect the food adversely due to generation of free radicals. This happens on account of a variety of photochemical reactions. UV radiations lead to changes in flavor of citrus products.

UV treatment also degrades beta-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin C. UV light processing is a viable alternative that is used for reduction of levels of undesirable microorganisms in food products Bradley et al. There are various nanoparticles which have antimicrobial properties like titanium dioxide TiO2. These particles have photocatalyzed antimicrobial activity. Due to this, these particles are only active in the presence of UV light.

For example, there are some common food borne pathogens against which titanium dioxide particles have been found to be effective. These includes pathogens such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, L.

However, titanium dioxide articles are effective against these food borne pathogens only under UV illumination not in the dark. Ebnesajjad, found that additional benefit may be provided by food packaging films that contained titanium dioxide nanoparticles. This is concerned with protecting the food content from oxidizing effects of UV radiation Ebnesajjad, Along with that, films containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles are efficient at maintaining good optical clarity.

This is because TiO2 nanoparticles are effective short wavelength light absorbers and possess high photostability. Batt agreed that TiO2 particles become transparent but at the same time these also retain their characteristics of ultraviolet absorption.

Due to these properties they can be applied for making transparent wraps, plastic containers or films. Imran et al, reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles were useful when incorporated into plastic packaging. This is because they block UV rays and are capable of providing anti-bacterial protection Imran et al. In addition they also improved the strength and stability of plastic film.

Moreover, these can be used for making transparent plastics thus adding the convenience. It not only enables the aspect of consumer inspection of the content but also locks out UV radiation.

Therefore, quality aspects of the product are protected. As per the views of Siegrist et al. In some applications, it is undesirable to have high barriers to diffusion of gases.

For example, certain fresh fruits and vegetables need a continual supply of oxygen for enhancement of their shelf life Siegrist et al, Oxygen is required by them so that there takes place sustained cellular respiration. However, it can be critically evaluated that the containers which are used for packaging carbonated beverages need to have high barriers for oxygen and carbon dioxide.

This is essential for preventing oxidation and de-carbonation of beverage contents. But, Fulekar, found that there are some other products in which it is necessary to prevent migration of oxygen or water vapor as compared to the prevention of carbon dioxide Fulekar, Srinivas et al, agreed that the demands on food packaging industry have increased due to the presence of these complexities.

This is because food products require packaging which is not only sophisticated but also has packaging functions which are remarkably different Srinivas et al. There are a large number of interrelated factors which determine the permeability of a polymer to oxygen or moisture.

These are, for example, hydrogen bonding characteristics, polydispersity, polymeric side chains and processing methodology Mahalik and Nambiar, They also asserted that polymer nano-composites PNCs are the latest materials which are aimed at catering to the sophisticated demands of different food and beverage products with respect to diffusion of atmospheric gases.

PNCs are manufactured through dispersion of an inert nanoscale filler throughout the polymeric matrix. These filler materials comprise of silicate and clay nano-platelets Mahalik and Nambiar, The permeability of polymeric materials to atmospheric gases is dependent on the rate at which the gas molecules are adsorbed through the matrix.

There are two ways in which nano size fillers in the polymer matrix impact the barrier properties. These create a tortuous path for diffusion of gases. This is because, the filler materials are impermeable inorganic crystals. This makes the gas molecules diffuse around them rather than taking a straight line path.

Therefore, it can be said that tortuousity is the primary mechanism through which barrier properties of packaging materials are impacted by nano fillers Neethirajan and Jayas, The second way through which nanoparticles act as a barrier to atmospheric gases is by causing changes in the polymer matrix art the interfacial regions.

Favorable polymer- nanoparticle interactions lead to immobilization of polymer strands that are located in close proximity to each nanoparticle. There are a variety of advantages of edible antimicrobial coatings.

These are developed so that the growth of micro-organisms can be reduced or inhibited. Antimicrobial food packaging is aimed at reducing surface contamination of processed and prepare foods such as sliced meats and sausages. Cooksey asserted that the area of antimicrobial packaging is based on enhancing safety as well as quality measures which are already used by food industry.

There are several conditions which are considered when antimicrobial packaging system is designed. It is important to ascertain the regulatory status of antimicrobial agent. There are other microbial systems which rely on the diffusing or releasing antimicrobial agents. In the situations when food cannot be consumed immediately after it is necessary that it should be packed in a material which protects it from pathogenic micro-organisms. According to Duncan , there is a long history of silver being used as antimicrobial agent in storage of food and beverages.

Silver nanoparticles act as potent agents against a number of bacterial species. Arora and Padua, carried out a study on migration of silver and copper from nano-composites. It was found that one of the most critical parameters in driving migration was the percentage of nano-fillers in the nano-composites.

Nanotechnology, when used in the food packaging sector, makes it possible to modify the permeability of packaging material. It thus helps in developing active antimicrobial surfaces Arora and Padua, Nanoscale materials emerged as novel agents for making antimicrobial surfaces due to their large surface area to volume ratio, physical and chemical properties. Antimicrobial properties of nanoparticles makes them efficient at increasing the shelf life pf food products and keeping it safe for consumption of humans.

Lipid based nano- encapsulation is also used as nano-delivery system for antimicrobials. Bereka found that silver zeolites contain antimicrobial properties due to their ability to produce ROS which lead to cell death. Moreover, sustained microbial activity is shown by silver based nano-composites which is better suited for long term packaging of food Bereka, Nanotechnology which is the science of very small materials has had a big impact in food packaging.

It possesses the potential of bringing improvements in quality and safety of food. Scientists are coming up with newer forms of nanotechnology each day and in future it will be evolving as a major part of technology science. So, it is very important that you study this part of science with details and try to complete all the assignments that are given to you.

This technology is responding so fast that it will be able to create devices that are of high quality and will be fruitful so that can be applied in major fields.

This other fields include medicine, electronic science, energy that is biomaterial and consumer related products. Nanotechnology finds new technology that will delete the use of toxic and environmental hazardous materials.

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The most innovative PhD thesis in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Dr. Samuel Lara-Avila has been awarded the Arne Sjögren prize for most innovative PhD thesis in the area of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at Chalmers in , for his thesis “Magnetotransport characterization of epitaxial graphene on SiC”.

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Nanotechnology. The aim of the program is intended to prepare a student to get expertise in the theoretical and experimental study of the Nanotechnology.

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