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❶The heavy losses being experienced by the troops of the Lost Battalion were further exacerbated by misdirected friendly artillery fire that killed or wounded hundreds of the bewildered U. The World in Flames:




During no major naval engagements between the belligerents took place in the Atlantic. German submarines sunk several British naval units, including the superdreadnought Audacious October 27 ; and a daring attempt by German submarines to raid Scapa Flow caused th During that time he was emperor of Germany from and he was King of Prussia from - William I fled to England in due to the revolution in Prussia. When he returned he commanded the army that defeated the republicans in Baden.

When William I's br World Discord is Germany's Oppurtunity Theme: Through events, such as a never-ending struggle for world peace, Germany only wishes that conflict and misfortune arise therefrom and allows them to become of superior strength. If the victor of superior strength does desire to express a desire to rest after a hard war, it is understandable.

Although, they will slowly be el We are going exploring through the aspects of religion in Germany. We are all going to gain a better understanding of why in modern Germany there is a split in religion between Catholics and Protestants. How the Treaty of Versailles Effected Germany When World War I ended on November 11, , peace talks went on for months due to the Allied leaders wanting to punish the enemy and "dividing the spoils of war.

The issue that took the most time were the territorial issues because the empires of Russia, Austria-Hunga Entered World War I. The outlook of the U. Each situation made the U. Germany created a war zone within the waters surrounding Great Britain and Ireland so that German sub-marines could sink enemy vessels.

The First World War was a devastating war that effected many places and also very many lives. Because of the effects of the war people were determined to search for the country that was to blame for all the disaster created.

The outbreak was contingent on a determining number of factors. These factors included nationalism that was being spread throughout Europe during the time before Wo Germany however, might have suffered the most from a war that claimed the lives of 9 million combatants.

Germany lost more men in this war than any other nation involved. An entire generation of Germans was slaughtered, almost 2 million were killed, and the total number of casualties was over 7 m There are many things that can cause a war.

For example, World War One was started because of many things: Nationalism lead to war because Serbia encouraged the pe The treaty looked like a good start but then by the end of it had fallen to dust. The great treaty that was to bring permanent peace fell apart at the seams. The three main powers at the conference were the United States The German republic was not at the signing. Included in the first section of t A major part of the history of Europe occurred during and after Napoleon s rule.

Napoleon unified Europe, a feeling of nationalism came about that would lead to the creation of new countries. Before the s there was no Italy or Germany. There were many similarities in the unification of both Germany and Italy. They both had hardships and steps to becoming unified.

The way they were unifi In the 19th Century Nationalism had a strong up rise in society. Nationalism is the devotion to the interest or culture of a nation, and the nation would benefit from action independently rather then collectively, emphasizing nation rather then international goals.

A lot of countries want to come one with all of the people in the country. But there were a lot of problems get people to thi Out of the Big Three nations at the treaty of Versailles, France the country which suffered by far the worst during the Great War achieved her aims the best.

The French set out to achieve a number of goals, which mainly fell under two categories, security and revenge against Germany. Just like most countries which fought in this war, France was a country which was dragged into it through the Michelle Brandon My Past: I was born in Calgary, Alberta in then in I moved to Germany. I stayed in Germany for 3 years then I moved to calgary for 2 years.

Cakgary is a nice place to live it s a big city compared to Germany. Germany is a beautiful place to go, I would like to go back to Germany for a visit. I go back to Calgary for a visit in the summer time to see my family an The Versailles treaty had an amazing affect on the future of all the countries in Europe that were a part of World War One. However, the treaty had the most devastating affect on the future of Germany. The treaty of Versailles essentially made the German people entirely responsible for the First World War.

This blame that was put on Germany was one of the main factors responsible for Germ Throughout history, the loser had always been the ultimate evil, especially in a world war, in Germany s case. However, it is true that Germany did have voluminous responsibilities of starting the war, although she was not the one who sparked off the initial dispute.

She was taking part in the imperialistic game, which made rivalries with other overseas empires. She was building an e Authoritarian Government in Germany The Unification of Germany under there the powerful leader Otto Von Bismark led to the Authoritarian style government in Germany for the next forty years through his aggressive and sometimes underhanded leadership qualities. Bismark united Germany too Prussia not uniting Germany as an equal and fair whole this was the main cause for this new auth This is only the first few lines of this paper.

If you would like to view the entire paper you need to register here. Germany seemed to be the victor, gaining control of France and Poland as well as successfully bombing England. Many people believe that Germany would have indeed won the war if not for the intervention of the United Sta First, after promoting the Gulf War he threw it away.

Instead of letting our army complete its victory he ordered it to stop! We lost the opportunity to have an army of occupation dominating the Arab oil fields, not subservient to the Saudi king, and paid for by Iraqi o Josh PelzThe conflicts of the thirty years warSunday May 30, The thirty years war was inevitable because of the unusually high amount of causes that went in to starting the war.

The war began as a civil war and became a struggle for territory and political power. The four main causes of the war were religion, economic, territorial and social. The main countries that were involved we She was building an en The Aims of Germany and Japan The s were a tumultuous time.

After World War I, the Allied powers seemed determined to preserve peace, but Germany and Japan held a shared goal of world domination. In two memorandums about the plans of Germany and Japan, U. The Western Front was calling. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…… [Read More]. Effect of WWI on Literature.

WWI and Literature World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature. In England alone, more than poets emerged during this period as Harvey elaborates: The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W.

For example, William Watson then…… [Read More]. Zionist Influence in World War I. The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain Gilbert, Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine.

France wanted them back Bradberry, The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: World War I The Causes and How America Joined the War The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war.

Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War. The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War. The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…… [Read More].

A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria.

However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question The Balkans , and the crises before The main powers of Europe before were: In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts.

Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…… [Read More]. This paper reviews the relevant literature to assess the relative importance of diplomacy, imperialism, and nationalism in causing the Great ar , as well as to identify the major players leading Europe to war. An analysis of why this "unwanted war" was greeted with such joy is followed by an assessment of whether this enthusiastic reaction to the outbreak of war was the consequence of domestic tension or simple patriotism and whether the victors' positions after the war reflect their wartime experiences.

Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the Great ar are presented in the conclusion. Analyzing World War I Dada. Dada The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war.

Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures Jones, ; Hulsenbeck, The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.

Beginnings Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…… [Read More].

Causes and Effects of World War I. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe Strachan 9. It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies.

In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. Great ar orld ar One ultimately killed 35 million people -- this alone might have merited its being called "The Great ar," although to a large degree it was the astonishing way in which the deaths happened.

On the first day of the Battle of the Somme alone, Britain suffered almost sixty thousand casualties. The ten-month stalemate of the Battle of Verdun resulted in seven hundred thousand , dead, with no discernible tactical advance made by either side Tuchman The immediate causes of orld ar One were complicated but fairly straightforward.

Many of the long-standing political institutions of Europe were badly outmoded, in particular two of the oldest: Each of these institutions were the inheritors of previous large-scale imperial institutions the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire accordingly which dated back nearly a thousand years -- and each was failing badly. There are several historical details of America's involvement in the First and Second world wars and the critical role that this country played in the two wars.

Studies on these historical events have mainly focused on examining the involvement of the United States in the wars, the results of the engagement, and its impact on the country's position nationally and globally.

America's involvement in the two wars had a crucial impact on the development of the nation to its current state both from the home front and internationally. America's Involvement in orld ar I: America's entrance and involvement in the First orld ar occurred on 6th April , breaking the nation's long isolation tradition. The nation had embraced a policy of isolation and neutrality when war was declared in Europe in This policy seemed to be the most appropriate approach since…… [Read More].

She vehemently protested against the war on political grounds, arguing that it actually represented a dissolution of the socialist principles which had largely animated Europe and large portions of Germany at the time. This fact is readily underscored by the notion that the author was imprisoned for the majority of World War I due to her protesting this war as violating many of the crucial tenets of socialism. The author's primary thesis is that large international conflicts such as World War I were fundamentally contrary to the ideologies of socialism, which strove to unite and empower the working class.

Luxemburg widely believed that World War I and the very conception of nationalism itself merely led to the disempowerment of socialists, and regulated the working class to its substandard living…… [Read More]. Imperialism and War WWI. First World War was the first-ever war that had brought great destruction and required greater involvement of many countries, most especially the European nations.

Evidence of the impending world war started during the early 19th century, wherein colonization and strengthening of military power is the most prevalent activity of all European nations at that time. The World War I was said to have many causes, although the most important and more popular cause discussed by historians today is that the First World War started because of the rising imperialism among competing European nations.

The war had two competing groups, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. These groups were not originally formed as a triad; rather, each nation became affiliated with each other before and during…… [Read More].

Causes of World War One. Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled.

These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process MacMillan, Causes of World War I. However, there was a lot more to what actually led to the outbreak of war than one political assassination. The assassination of the Archduke was significant in that it represented a growing trend in the geo-political landscape of Europe: The Serbian assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.

Sensing that budding discontent against the Austro-Hungarian regime could be politically costly, the Empire, still under Franz Josef goaded the Serbian nationalists first by issuing an ultimatum. The Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to gain total control over the entire Balkans: Serbia stood in its way, making it seem like a worthwhile maneuver to enter into war if need be. Serbian nationalists, on the other hand, also believed it worthwhile to push back against the encroachment on…… [Read More].

The American federal government also began to seek to exercise its moral influence upon the rest of the world. However, this shift from American isolationism towards those in need within America, as well as the needs of individuals abroad, did not come with some national soul-searching. The historian illiam E. Leuchtenburg writes in his text The Perils of Prosperity: The reception of this foreign propaganda can be measured in a number of different ways: Special attention will be given to pamphlets, posters, and other propaganda describing the invasion of Belgium by Germany, known colloquially as the ape of Belgium.

Historical context will comprise the background section of the research report. It is necessary to highlight the specific issues that the propaganda material were designed to address in the public consciousness.

The propaganda material will be analyzed in terms of its symbolism and composition, and there will be some mention also of the prevailing artistic sensibilities that influenced the artwork -- which cannot be taken out of its historical context.

For example, many of the sketches used for the…… [Read More]. They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to.

However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war.

Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…… [Read More]. Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.

Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology.

Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed as a principle. America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe. The new Imperialism of America and…… [Read More]. WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting Marston, Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany.

If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war Marston, For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…… [Read More]. Balkan ar that led to orld ar I There were several factors of the Balkan Crisis of that led to orld ar I.

Generally, the European Crisis of is blamed on the "Great Power statesmen for their shortsightedness, incompetence, or failure to act in a timely or effective way to keep the peace" Sowards However, it is important to consider the players involved in the conflict between the two states in the original Sarajevo crisis, Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Early in the crisis, when the Austrian, Hungarians, and Serbs made important decisions, "they consistently avoided compromise and risked war" Sowards Two months passed between the murder of Franz Ferdinand and the "coming of the general war However, there were several successive events that took place during those two months.

United States entry into world war. Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, , and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War.

Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War.

An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…… [Read More]. Post World War I Era. Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs.

The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.

The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…… [Read More]. McRae's poem gives a voice to those who died fighting in the war. Flanders Fields is reported to have been "the generic name of the World War I battlefields under the medieval County of Flanders. The primary themes in McRae's poems were death, revenge, and honor. What Caused World War 1.

These agreements implied that in case one nation was invaded, associated nations had to protect them. The following alliances existed prior to World War 1 Kelly: These three nations agreed to support one another in case of an attack from either ussia or France. France, in particular, felt intimidated by this alliance. The main aim of the alliance was to support collaboration against Germany's thought threat.

After three years, ussia that was scared of the growth of the German Army, united with France and Britain, to create the Triple Entente Triple Entente.

World War I is fundamentally similar to warfare as it is practiced today. This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide evidence in support of the argument that World War I is fundamentally similar to warfare as it is practiced today.

Major and Supporting Points of Evidence There were numerous innovations in military ordnance and munitions that took place during and following the U. Civil War, but the purpose of the warfare practiced on the field of battle in World War I was fundamentally similar to the purpose of warfare as it is practiced today for a number of reasons, including the following: The fundamental purpose and nature of warfare today is identical to the purpose and nature of the warfare prosecuted in World War I; Notwithstanding some differences in the composition of the belligerents and military tactics, wars are still fought and won by "boots on the ground"; and,…… [Read More].

Tanks of World War I. The latter was skeptical, referring to the device as "a pretty mechanical toy" Harris 31 but everybody else was favorably impressed and the ar Office continued enthusiastically to support tank development. The Mark I, powered by two diesel engines, was built in two versions, "male" which mounted four machine guns and two 6-pounder naval guns in protruding barbettes, and "female" which carried machine guns only.

The male version was intended as an assault weapon; the female tanks were designed to protect their male counterparts and each other by using machine guns to mow down attacking infantry who might otherwise swamp and overcome the tanks Harris This huge, heavy, lozenge-shaped monster became the pattern for the classic First orld ar tank, through to the Mark VIII of The tanks were ready…… [Read More].

Trench Warfare of WW1. Trench Warfare in World War I WWI Trench warfare was used in World War I and they were forced to live in muddy, isolated conditions for months exposed to horrific elements, and inviting diseases like gangrene. During World War I many things changed, as lives were destroyed, dreams shattered, and many soldiers died or suffering immeasurable psychological and physical conditions. WWI was the first time in history that war involved the use of new technology such as airplanes, tanks and submarines.

Trench warfare caused many horrific deaths. In addition, many soldiers who participated in trench warfare had serious psychological and health problems by the time they returned home. About Trench Warfare Trench warfare is a type of warfare in which opponents of war "attack, counterattack, and defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug…… [Read More].

Nationalism was a global trend by the time the Great War broke out. Each nation state developed its own national identity via the use of myths, symbols, and ideology that ranged from ethnic solidarity to political values.

Nationalism in Germany became especially potent after the Franco-Prussian War, during which Bismarck wielded his political and military prowess in formidable ways. Crucial to winning the war campaign was a sense of national pride and identity, which Otto von Bismarck promoted through an idealized unity between disparate religious and cultural groups within the various German-speaking states. In addition to promoting a sense of regional identity, Bismarck also championed the vision of an epic, legendary, heroic German state grounded in a sense of power and prestige.

Also characteristic to German nationalism was a sense of pride in the act of struggle itself, another point that Bismarck promoted through his speeches. German nationalism had been…… [Read More]. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. They were opposed by the Central Powers: The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.

Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of , but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.

The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy.

But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.

The process of expansion did not end in August Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of , declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August , encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench.

Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November until March It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres 22 April May , and more especially during the Battle of Verdun 21 February December , a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme 1 July19 November and the Third Battle of Ypres 31 July November they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.

German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 14 March and took Russia out of the war.

This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' June-September , which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as , Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April , but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.

The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March , the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Turkey surrendered on 31 October The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over , British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel 1 November and Jutland 31 May-1 June , the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare February brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April , played an important role in German defeat.


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Although the First World War is popularly considered a generally European endeavor, the Ottoman Empire at the time also played a significant role in the war and its aftermath. It was on the side of the Central Power, opposite to Russia, the Ottoman rival at the time (McKinney ).

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The First World War c) The Following were equally important reasons why the stalemate on the Western Front was finally broken: new technology like the tank the American entry into the war the blockading of German ports the German offensive in March Explain how far you agree with this statement.

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The First World War went down in history as one of the worst wars ever to be fought, owing to the magnitude of destruction and loss of life it left in its wake. The war started in ending in , and has been described variously as the Great War the War of Nations and the War to End All Wars. In this essay I will be focusing on the main causes of the First World War and I will be exploring this cause step by step, which it was began in early August The Great War was a military conflict that lasted from to which involved most of the world's great powers assembled in two opposing alliances.

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- First World War Poetry "paydayloanslexington.gq all I am not concerned with poetry. My subject is war, and the pity of war. The poetry is in the pity." -Wilfred Owen. The First World War, or The Great War, was fought over the period August to November The First World War, commonly known as WW1, was one of the most horrific, tragic, and world changing event of the 20th century. Beginning in and ending in , the war occurred due to series of events involving the super powers of the world.