Do not present raw data! Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. For example, only stating that "Results are shown in Table 1. The text describes the data presented in the tables and figures and calls attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions.
Rules to follow when constructing and presenting figures and tables are presented in a later section of this guide. Here, the researcher interprets the data in terms of any patterns that were observed, any relationships among experimental variables that are important and any correlations between variables that are discernible.
The author should include any explanations of how the results differed from those hypothesized, or how the results were either different from or similar to those of any related experiments performed by other researchers. Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important. A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction.
Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section.
By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known. In this section you should give credit to people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper. If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section.
This section lists, in alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper. It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem. Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned cited in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section.
This is why the section is called "Literature Cited" instead of "References" or "Bibliography". The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal.
The method that you will follow is the "author-date" system. Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper. The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text. Sentence structure determines the placement of the parentheses. Three or more authors: Entries in the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author s and chronologically for papers by the same author s.
The following citations illustrate the details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. Processes of Organic Evolution. Salt Tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris. Generally, most references will be to the primary literature i.
Popular literature and the Internet should be used sparingly and with caution. Other sources such as book chapters and pamphlets typically have their own specific citation formats. If necessary, be sure to find out what these formats are and use them appropriately. For a much more detailed discussion about writing scientific papers, consult: Council of Biology Editors, Inc. This guide is based on a paper by Gubanich, A. Writing the scientific paper in the investigative lab. Examples from the scientific literature that illustrate material in various sections of a scientific paper.
Revision of the theory of phototropism in plants: Went's classical experiment on the diffusion of auxin activity from unilaterally illuminated oat coleoptile tips Went , was repeated as precisely as possible. In agreement with Went's data with the Avena curvature assay, the agar blocks from the illuminated side of oat Avena sativa L.
However, determination of the absolute amounts of indoleacetic acid IAA in the agar blocks, using a physicochemical assay following purification, showed that the IAA was evenly distributed in the blocks from the illuminated and shaded sides. In the blocks from the shaded and dark-control halves the amounts of IAA were 2. Chromatography of the diffusates prior to the Avena curvature test demonstrated that the amounts of two growth inhibitors, especially of the more polar one, were significantly higher in the agar blocks from the illuminated side than in those from the shaded side and the dark control.
These results show that the basic experiment from which the Cholodny-Went theory was derived does not justify this theory. The data rather indicate that phototropism is caused by the light-induced, local accumulation of growth inhibitors against a background of even auxin distribution, the diffusion of auxin being unaffected.
Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systematically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well.
The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemesia tridentata , a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes.
Cytokinins in a genic male sterile line of Brassica napus. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Queer place for qwerty: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page.
Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: The rats were injected with the drug. I injected the drug into the rat. Temperature has an effect on the reaction.
Temperature affects the reaction. I used solutions in various concentrations. Less food can't count numbers of food Fewer animals can count numbers of animals. A large amount of food can't count them A large number of animals can count them.
The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin. The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. This sentence implies that there are erythrocytes elsewhere that don't contain hemoglobin. Write at a level that's appropriate for your audience. Use the active voice. It's clearer and more concise than the passive voice. An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured. The rats ate more and gained weight. It is thought Write: The samples were analyzed Write: I analyzed the samples.
Use strong verbs instead of "to be". The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing I know there are professors in this country who 'ligate' arteries. Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well. A sentence made of more than 40 words should probably be rewritten as two sentences.
Use a spellchecker, but be aware that they don't catch all mistakes. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.
Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure.
It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface.
The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.
The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. Tube 4's A was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.
Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure.
Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible.
Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig. The results of the germination experiment Fig.
Strategy for Writing the Results Section. Frequently asked questions FAQs. What are the "results"? When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena.
Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. In general, the answer is the " key result". The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ.
So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected.
For example, suppose you asked the question, " Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors? You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples mean, SD, n, range, etc and plot these numbers.
In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, Differences, directionality, and magnitude: Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that "groups A and B were significantly different".
How are they different? How much are they different? See also below about use of the word " significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way.
A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results. Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures: The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.
The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question s investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc.
Some problems to avoid: Statistical test summaries test name, p- value are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding if statistical tests are being used in your course. This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance test statistic and DF are optional.
For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result in blue and your statistical conclusion shown in red as follows: If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Note that the report of the key result shown in blue would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure.
Present the results of your experiment s in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet. Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study.
Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis.
Writing the Scientific Paper. W hen you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) T he scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry.
Students who have faced some difficulties in writing their academic papers may contact our writing experts to get entire information how to write scientific papers. A scientific paper is a paper that is written for scientists by scientists - or, in case of student writers, for scientists by student scientists.
A GUIDE TO WRITING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. Scientific experiments are demanding, exciting endeavors, but, to have an impact, results must be communicated to others. A research paper is a method of communication, an attempt to tell others about some specific data that you have gathered and what you think those data mean in the context of your research. format for the paper Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner.
Before writing: delimiting your scientific paper A good paper do not loose focus throughout the entirety of its form. As such, we are going to give you a more detailed view on how to delimit your paper. The task of writing a scientific paper and submitting it to a journal for publication is a time‐consuming and often daunting task. 3,4 Barriers to effective writing include lack of experience, poor writing habits, writing anxiety, unfamiliarity with the requirements of scholarly writing, lack of confidence in writing ability, fear of failure.