The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna" or dysertacja habilitacyjna". Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis tese is presented for defense in a public exam.
The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars including the advisor or other experts with a PhD degree generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University. In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" thesis , whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses Candidate of Sciences.
To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. Length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed ]. At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies. The thesis used to be 40—60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20—30 pages in new Bologna process programmes.
To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo Master's thesis that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis. The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija doctoral dissertation.
In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. In Sweden, there are different types of theses. After that there are two types of post graduate degrees, Licentiate dissertation and PhD dissertation.
A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete.
Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions.
The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement.
Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These projects are called "senior projects" or "senior theses"; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge.
Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations. They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges.
Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations. Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers.
Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation. The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme , offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend.
Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether or not it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship.
Lesser projects a master's thesis, for example are judged by whether or not they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination called a viva voce examination or just viva in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries.
This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation often public by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation.
An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis or dissertation " defense ", which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions. The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.
At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense.
Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.
It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks.
At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva. Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales , have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions.
In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners. Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other s will usually be from other universities and often from overseas.
Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university. For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department.
Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted. In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom , Magister , master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees.
However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputation , also called Verteidigung "defense" , is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis.
In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung.
In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PHD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners. The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries.
The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement. An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university.
The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates.
In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees. Typical duration for the total exam is 1 hour 30 minutes for the MSc and 3 hours for the PhD.
In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates. The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus his or her primary supervisor, an external examiner someone not otherwise connected to the university , and a chair person.
Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter.
In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of his or her research, followed by one to two hours of questions.
A student in Ukraine or Russia has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis. A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute.
The Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA can last two years and candidates must complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied.
After completing this part of the PhD, students begin a dissertation on a set topic. The dissertation must reach a minimum length depending on the subject and it is valued more highly if it contains field research. Once candidates have finished their written dissertations, they must present them before a committee. Following this presentation, the examiners will ask questions.
In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva for short.
A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Increasingly, the examination may involve a third academic, the 'chair'; this person, from the candidate's institution, acts as an impartial observer with oversight of the examination process to ensure that the examination is fair.
The 'chair' does not ask academic questions of the candidate. In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private.
The candidate's primary supervisor is not permitted to ask or answer questions during the viva, and their presence is not necessary. However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend. At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva the University's regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance provided he or she attends in full academic dress.
A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. By the final deadline , the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and, in some cases, the head of the student's department.
Other required forms may include library authorizations giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection and copyright permissions in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis.
Many large scientific publishing houses e. Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation and granting of the degree being delayed. Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries.
Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September For other uses, see Thesis disambiguation. For the novel, see The Dissertation. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Prepare a clear statement of the central thesis question that you intend to answer with your research.
Being able to state your thesis explicitly and clearly is important. If you struggle with stating the question, you might need to rethink your project altogether. The outline will be beneficial to you to "see where you're going" as you move forward in your project, but also to give your committee members an idea of what you want to accomplish and how you plan to do so.
Know what to include. You should check with your university for the exact requirements, which are often strict and institutionally specific. However, most Master's theses should include the following: Part 3 Quiz True or False: You should show your outline to your committee members. One approach that works for many people is to use a reverse calendar, where you plan your writing schedule from the due date and work backward.
Write a little every day. Writing a page thesis can be a daunting task, but if you write 1, words every day over the course of 2 months, for example, then you will be able to meet that deadline with ease.
Your exact timeframe will differ, but you should try to give yourself as much time as possible to write, and no less than a month. Try not to get frustrated and put off your work because then it will pile up and become unmanageable. Try the Pomodoro Technique. This breaks your work into manageable chunks and can cut down on the feeling of being overwhelmed that often accompanies a large, long-term project.
It is important, especially when working on a large-scale project, to give your brain a break every now and then. You'll catch mistakes you didn't see before and come up with new answers you couldn't think of before. Find a writing time that works for you. Some people work best in the morning, while others are able to focus more effectively at night. If you are unsure of when you are most productive, try different approaches and see what seems to work the best for you.
You may find that your thesis proposal is a useful jumping off point for writing your introduction. You may want to revisit and revise your introduction at several points throughout your writing process, perhaps even each time you finish a large section or chapter. Incorporate the review of literature. If you were required to write a review of literature prior to beginning your thesis, good news: Again, you may need to reshape and revise the work, and you will likely also find occasion to add to the review as you move forward with your work.
The remainder of the thesis varies greatly by field. A science-based thesis will involve few secondary sources as the remainder of your work will involve describing and presenting the results of a study. A literary thesis, on the other hand, will likely continue to cite secondary scholarship as it builds an analysis or reading of a particular text or texts. Write a powerful conclusion. Your conclusion should detail the importance of this Master's thesis to the subject community and may suggest the direction that future researchers might follow to continue with relevant information on the subject.
Be sure to include relevant charts, graphs, and figure as appropriate. You may also need to add appendices at the end of your work that are germane to your work but tangential to the central question of your Master's thesis. Be sure that all aspects of your work are formatted in accordance with the guidelines of your institutional and discipline expectations. Part 4 Quiz How can you make sure your schedule is reasonable?
By making sure you finish with plenty of time to spare. By making sure you're working 2 hours every day. By creating a reverse schedule. Compare your draft with your university's requirements. The formatting requirements for theses and dissertations are notoriously tedious and complicated.
Make sure that your documents adhere to all of the requirements laid out by your department, in general, and by your committee chair, in specific. Many departments or programs provide a document template for theses and dissertations. If you have one of these, it may be easiest to use such a template from the beginning of your work rather than copying and pasting your writing into it.
Re-read the entire thesis for correctness. Take a week or so off, if possible, once you have finished writing and give your brain a break. Then, go back with fresh eyes to catch any grammatical errors or typos you may have made. When you are so deep in the writing process, it is easy to just read what you mean instead of what you actually wrote.
So it is important to take a step back so that you can evaluate your work and your writing more effectively. Follow all printing guidelines according to your department's policies.
You will probably have to pay out of pocket to print one or more copies of your Master's thesis for your university, as well as any other personal copies you may want for yourself. Make sure you abide by these guidelines to avoid any potential setbacks during this final stage. Prepare for your thesis defense. After completing the written portion of your Master's thesis, you will probably have to participate in a defense involving you presenting the ideas discussed in your thesis to your committee members.
This is a great opportunity to show what you have learned during the process and to give your committee members a chance to bring up any questions or concerns they might have. Your institution likely has very specific guidelines for submitting your thesis.
Most universities require you to upload your thesis to Pro Quest for electronic publication or at least tracking through their dissertation and thesis archive. Some institutions require you to submit your thesis for a formatting check prior to uploading the document to ProQuest. Be aware of thesis submission deadlines, which are often well in advance of your graduation date. Late submission of your thesis may force you to push back your graduation date, which may affect your employment or continuing graduate studies.
Part 5 Quiz What is a thesis defense? The introduction, where you tell your reader why your thesis is correct. When you present your thesis ideas to your committee members. An argument between you and your thesis head. Start by getting a theme. Then, structure your proposal in steps: Introduction, information about the topic, an elaboration on your studies, a conclusion, and a collection of links and books that you used for your studying.
Not Helpful 3 Helpful It depends on your specific school, and the program that you are in. You can reach out to your academic counselor to find out specifically what is expected in your thesis. Not Helpful 9 Helpful 9. How can I tell if I need to do a qualitative or quantitative master's thesis? Answer this question Flag as Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary To write a master's thesis, make it a goal to write words every day, which will help you meet your deadline without having to rush at the last minute.
Did this summary help you? Tips An exhaustive review of the literature and research available on similar topics will save you from time consuming revisions before presenting your work.
Remember why you are writing a Master's thesis and who will want to read and use the material. You write a Master's thesis for members of your community, so keep in mind that they will have extensive knowledge and experience before reading your work.
Don't bore them with unnecessary material. Choosing the perfect question before starting research will prevent frustration and save time. Rigorous effort on finding the perfect question is probably the most important task when learning how to write a Master's thesis.
Consult other people who have completed a Master's thesis and obtained a Master's degree. It can be a long, grueling process, and having the support and advice of someone who has already done it can be very valuable. When writing your Master's thesis or any report or paper , it's a good idea to write at least 1 or 2 sentences into the next topic before taking a break. This can make it much easier to continue writing the next day. Theses and Dissertations In other languages: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times.
Thanks so much for publishing this article. Looking forward to get to an example of it. Thank you very much. JK Jackson Kwakwa Nov 21, The article offered detailed information on how to structure your introduction, research methods, as well as the conclusion.
GZ Genc Zhushi Apr 18, Thank you all for your great work. You have done a great job writing this helpful Master's thesis guide. I've tried the Pomodoro Technique and found that it works for me. AD Ayten Dou Sep 30, Thank you for such a neat and clear explanation. This article helped me with how I can start and end my thesis smoothly with different stages. JZ Joe Zhou Jun 7, Now I have a general image of how to compete a master thesis, thank a lot. Ilham Majeed Qadir Nov 6, The points are totally clear and to the point.
HM Heba Mahran Mar 8, It also contains important information that I was not familiar with. HF Hashem Farzanefar Apr 27, Plus, the pictures are very helpful for me.
FZ Fouad Zeidan Jun 18, It contains all what you need to start a thesis for Master's English. RD Rosan Dangol Oct 4, LP Laurensius Pratama Jul 20, Royer May 11,
A masters degree thesis is typically over pages. However, the dissertation is usually at least double and sometimes triple the length of a thesis. To determine the length of your thesis or dissertation, remember you should always first consult your grad school.
Non-Thesis Degrees In some cases, students have the option of completing a non-thesis degree program. Those students will typically take more courses than those in the degree program, and some students find that it takes them longer to finish the program.
What is a Masters Dissertation or Postgraduate Dissertation? Many postgraduate students experience a feeling of dread when they first begin thinking about the word ‘Dissertation’! As an essential component of most postgraduate degree programmes, the Dissertation can be the key to success or failure. You can find more information on the dissertation requirements for individual Masters programmes by looking at the entries for courses in the FindAMasters database. For some extra help and advice on the Masters dissertation experience and help with managing your research, see our selection of useful tips.
The University confers degrees three times a year: February, May and September. Submission deadlines for the requirements below are published in the Graduate School's Academic Calendar. Please not that the Degree Eligibility Form must be submitted to the student's academic department for review at. Learn the difference between a Masters vs PhD such as which degree is higher, which one costs more, the types of degrees available and how long each could take to complete. Start here to learn more! coursework and dissertations required. Which One Costs More? Masters degrees tend to be more career-oriented while PhD's tend to be .