Since secularism and religion are interconnected to each other, there is a lot to learn by reading this type of Essays on Morality. The famous author called Machiavelli has contributed his pen in writing Essays On Morality as well.
In this Human Morality Essay, Machiavelli talks about the relationship between human conscience and politics. Morality and God is another Human Morality Essay, which is certainly significant. It is a very popular Morality Essay, as it hunts for the fact that how men fear God, and whether it is really a moral thing to do. You can look out for these essays on the Internet and you can also buy a morality essay easily from firms like Professional Content Writers. You can also comment on them as per your choice.
One of the possible fallacies of minimalist ethics is that it implies that an action is ethical as long as it does not hurt anybody. The simplistic and consequentialist nature of this school of ethics provides loopholes for actions done for pure self-interest that indirectly bring negative consequences for others. Thus, the minimalist approach should only be interpreted as a methodology, not as a moral guidance. It is imperative that the minimalist ground should not be manipulated as the sole justification for all kinds of actions.
How should a minimalist common ground be established to reinforce the applicability of moral pluralism? We should recognize that no single individual or group has precisely the same perception of truth and reality due to the differences in religious faith, personal experience and other factors. Just as cognitive relativism embraces moral relativism, cognitive diversity promotes different applications of moral values.
Such a limit signifies the line between ungrounded perspective such as superstitions and rational logic that is based on empirical examination and truths. William James, a modern advocate of pragmatism, synthesizes the best elements of Empiricism and Idealism. He opposes the prevailing notion of his academic colleagues that only scientific methods can lead to an understanding of the human condition, yet, criticizes any extreme reliance on logic as the sole basis of philosophical truth. In line with his philosophy, the powerful combination of empirical truth and philosophical logic excludes ungrounded practices that are against common humanity.
For example, in Southern Sudan, the practice of sacrificing the spear master by the Dinkas became completely unjustified when the tribe survived after the practice was outlawed. Thus, cognitive or cultural perceptions, which deviate from the examined truth and accepted rationality, should be excluded from the common ground. Apart from that, to ensure moral progress, the common ground requires that context-independent values not only supercede cultural practices, but also serve to reform the culture itself.
A flexibility with regard to the prioritization of moral values is another principle that should be emphasized to ensure that the goal of the common good be achieved.
For pluralism, there is a plurality of reasonable rankings in the light of different equally reasonable conceptions of good life. The central claim of moral pluralism that there is not a single moral value that is superior to others, should not be seem as justifying the claim that there is no possibility of assigning priority among different moral values according to different contexts.
Admittedly, such an approach tends to borrow a shade of pragmatism the doctrine that a statement is true and meaningful according to the practical results that would be experienced if that statement were acted upon.
However, it is important to recognize that such a flexibility should not be equalized with the extreme form of pragmatism, which normally involves an attempt to wipe out the distinction between different kinds of truths. For a pragmatist, an action is not true because it corresponds to reality; therefore, there is no need to worry what sort of reality that makes that action the right one to perform.
Moral pluralism has its metaphysical forms and does not deny the distinction between objective reality and ultimate reality. In Absolutism and Its Consequentialist Critics, Joram Graf Haber holds the position that one should be truthful to the murderer under whatsoever circumstances. That is a basic template that researchers build off and test people with.
They've found that many of the answers provided were encompassing feelings rather than morals, and some even reacted by stating that they were unsure of what morals even were.
The second sequence of questions provided answers that categorized people by their responses, and the notion that people often deviate from ethics and morals was examined.
The last chain of questions was asked to volunteers and their neuroscience reactions were examined. These tests presented the concept that judgment was used when the volunteers came to their decision. This shows how complex and difficult ethical and moral decision making is and what is involved. The thought process and steps in making an ethical and moral decision is far more complex then one would think.
There is actually an order involved with making ethical decisions. First one must recognize that something is unethical and determine whether or not they want to take responsibility for that action or event. Second, that person must determine what ethical rules or conduct would apply to this particular situation. Lastly, it must be ascertained which ethical rules will pertain to the probable solution to the dilemma and follow through with that decision. However simple these steps may sound, the actual process involved with making an ethical decision is also dependent on the situation and outside sources.
Influences Moral and ethical decisions are not universal, they depend on many different outliers. Society, culture, media, and unpleasing circumstances can be a large determinate of ethical and moral values.
Paul Boghossian mentions that to a lot of people, eating beef is seen as a normality, but to Hindus it is seen as immoral and unethical. Media can also influence our decision making skills; the visual effects a picture can have a person's ethical and moral values can have vast impacts on a person.
She points out that, "Shock can wear off As one can become habituated to horror in real life, one can become habituated to the horror of certain images" Sontag While society, culture, and media are impacting, expectations and pressures from peers can also greatly influence, and at times, drive our decisions.
A disease or debilitating circumstances, atrocious and dreadful personal experiences, a group of overbearing and judgmental peers, and even technology, politics, and economic powers can influence our responses.
With the great increase of technology and political and economical power in our society, it can be hard to value ethics and morals nowadays. People often ignore unethical and immoral events because we have become so engrossed in theses aspects of our culture. Technological advances have become such an influential portion of our society that it often times can be hard to escape. At times, it can be thought to have taken over our lives which leaves little room for the things that used to matter, like ethics and morals.
Politics is another piece of our culture that seems to have taken people under control. Corruption and immorality have, in a sense, seeped into the governmental section of society and is definitely affecting our abilities to defend our ethical and moral rights.
Ethics and morality seem to be the one massive thing that can keep technology and politics from taking over our lives completely. Conclusion When one is faced with a predicament that involves an ethical or moral related decision or action, there are many different factors that come into play. Society, culture, media exposure, and personal circumstances can have a great influence on the kind of ethical or moral mindset that person has.
Also technology, politics, and economical power have an impact on not only whether a person lives ethically or morally, but even if they are able to make those decisions.
Ethics and morality, at times, feels like a less popular lifestyle for our civilization. This may be a particular reason why we live in an uncertain and doubtful culture. Relativism is the theory that moral values are not universal and that they may differentiate from each other depending on the society or culture that the person grew up in. How else would the absolute facts of right and wrong come about? What would make you help somebody that is in need? Boghossian goes on to talk about the belief in witches many years ago.
He talks about when we decided that there were no such things as witches, we gave up talking about them instead of becoming relativists about them. In another example that Boghossian talks about, he speaks of what Einstein taught us in his Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein proved that nothing ever happened absolutely simultaneously.
This recommended that we become relativists of simultaneity. Boghossian goes on to ask what the difference between the witch case and the simultaneity case. Einstein showed that the world does not contain simultaneity, but it does contain simultaneity relative to a frame of reference.
In the witch cases, once we give up on witches, they just go away and have no relation to anything else. Most moral relativists state that there is a moral code in a community that states what is right and wrong. One example of this is the ability of that community to eat beef. In some communities, eating beef is not allowed because the beef is sacred. The wrongness of eating beef is claimed by the society of the Hindus, and according the moral code of the Hindus, everyone would agree that eating beef is wrong.
Boghossian tells the reader that the question on morality is more like the witch case than that of the simultaneity case. Another case that the author speaks about is the question of slurping your food. If you were in Buckingham Palace, it would be offensive to slurp your food, but if you were in China, not slurping your food would be offensive to the hosts because they would get the impression that the food is not very good.
In a Notre Dame sociologist named Christian Smith led a research that involved young adults and questioned their moral lives. It appeared that majority of the individuals involved in the study had almost no idea of what morality even is, let alone if they have morality in their own lives. Even when asked questions pertaining to drinking and driving or cheating, answers we should all know, they simply answered with round-about replies.
Who am I to say? This goes to show that most young adults have almost no moral compass nowadays and simply go on their feelings to determine whether something is right or wrong. For example, Buckley speaks of a time that he was in a crowded train cart. He tells of how it is below freezing outside, but for some reason, inside of the train cart, it is over 85 degrees. When the train conductor comes by for the tickets, he goes to complain about the heat, but instead, asks what time they will reach the destination.
William Buckley goes on to tell of a time when he was at the movie theatres with his wife, and he started to notice that the picture was out of focus, and when he tried to complain to his wife, she told him to be quiet. Buckley states that once we stop complaining, we have lost our ability as humans to have feelings. He also talks about whether or not morals are concrete, meaning if one has morals will they deviate from that code no matter what the circumstances?
He uses a bunch of studies as evidence that show that people do have morals, and there does not seem to be set moral code, there is usually an exception.
The essay goes through its evolution of studies trying to figure out what a moral code is and what peoples are and what they are based off of. They basically conclude that people choose a moral code that fits their own desires. The studies showed that people do in fact have morals, that they in fact could have more than one set, and they just make a decision based on the situation.
The author goes on to explain how she attempted to go through an entire week without telling a lie and it was nearly impossible. Through all of these lies, the notion of whether or not the lies hurt anything and if the lying has any merit. Examples of each are given and how they affect others. This gives readers a more in your face kind of read so they can actually see why each type of lie is important to know and understand. Richard Gray goes on to name a few animals and tell about their moral views.
The first mammal that he starts with is the wolf. He speaks of the close social groups that a pack of wolves has, and the rules that govern it. If a pack becomes too big, the pack will slowly start to disintegrate because the bond between them would not be close. He also states that wolves show fairness.
The next animal that he goes on to talk about is the coyote. If during play, a coyote cub bites hard enough to hurt the other cubs, it will most likely be forced to leave the group entirely.
Gray speaks about one of the most sociable animals, which are elephants. Evidence has been found that shows elephants help injured or ill members of their herd.
Moral and ethics are of high importance in determining the nature of a society or a culture. Morals and ethics are used as complimentary terms but they mean different in literal sense. Morals define personal character and refer to the beliefs that a person practices when he interacts in personal and.
Free morals papers, essays, and research papers. The Origins of Morals - Do the morals that people empower evolve from the society that they grow up in, or is there some inborn conscience that all posses.
The Importance of Moral Values in Our Life essay sample. The Importance of Moral Values essay example. Feel free to buy custom essays, term papers, research papers at . Example Essays. The greatest gift of human rationality is morality. The establishment of “morality” is based on the recognition that every human has a general set of basic needs to lead a life free of physical and psychological suffering.
My morals and ethical values are strongly influenced by my family. My parents have taught me, through their words and example, that marriage is a sacred institution. I do not want to be a divorcee nor do I want my children to be part of a divorced family. Morality Essay provides you with an insight on the morals of a certain person, culture or race. Since man is a social animal, generally Morality Essay deals with the various social habits and behaviors of men.