More generally, economic globalization created more competition between nation-states for footloose capital and investments, which depended in part on low labor costs and intensified pressures on national social standards. Enhanced exit options for capital made taxation and redistribution more difficult to implement and created an asymmetric balance of power between labor organizations and business interests. In addition to the external challenges posed by the emergence of the global economy, mature welfare states also have been confronted by a number of internal domestic challenges that are related to societal modernization and the transition from industrial to postindustrial economies.
Service sector productivity is generally lower than industrial sector productivity. This means that the service sector generates lower rates of economic growth and smaller wage increases, both of which have negative feedback effects on public revenues.
Private service sector jobs also tend to be less well-compensated than industrial jobs. Gains in employment in the private service sector can only be achieved by generating higher inequality, unless the public sector exercises a compensatory function. Competing in the global economy requires a flexible labor force that can be upsized, downsized, and transformed by retraining or replacements as demand changes and competitive advantages shift away from established industries.
This need, as well as greater labor market participation by women, has led to the proliferation of part-time, temporary, and fixed-term jobs. The welfare state was not designed to accommodate these alternative forms of labor, which can be expected, in the long run, to produce large numbers of elderly poor. The increase in the number of women in the labor market also has decreased the capacity of families to provide welfare, as women who stayed at home were traditionally responsible for the care of children, elders, and the infirm.
An increase in the numbers of single-parent households has had similar effects. At the same time, the erosion of traditional family forms and changes in male and female contributions have generated new social risks and needs, placing new demands on social care. Single parents and families with many children, for example, now comprise a significant percentage of the poor. The two other potential challenges to national welfare states are demographic.
Life expectancies have increased dramatically over the past decades, while fertility rates have declined. The result is an aging population and increased demand for the most expensive welfare state programs—pensions, health, and long-term care—that will require greater expenditures in the future. Scholars such as Alberto Alesina and Edward L. Glaeser also expect the increasing ethnic heterogeneity in European societies to pose problems for social-democratic and conservative welfare states.
They maintain that these welfare states are based on a set of common values and political community, and that increasing ethnic heterogeneity will undermine this solidarity and make legitimation of redistribution impossible to achieve, pushing continental Europe toward American-style liberal social policy. Many scholars, however, disagree with this assessment. National welfare state regimes have exhibited varying degrees of vulnerability and resistance to the problems and challenges that have plagued them since the s, and they have followed quite different pathways to accommodate them.
Nevertheless, there have been common trends in welfare state restructuring that stretch across the different types of regimes. None of the established national welfare states were completely dismantled—popular support of the welfare state made it impossible to achieve legitimation for such measures—but retrenchment was common, with widespread reductions in benefits.
Ironically, benefit cutbacks were outpaced by increasing expenditures due to rising unemployment, aging populations, and the emergence of new social risks. But while public social spending levels in the different types of welfare state regimes have converged over time, levels of private social expenditure have not. Furthermore, reductions in benefits have been asymmetrical, among programs within regimes, as well as among regimes, and in some areas benefits were increased or expanded.
Since the mids, for example, most Western welfare states have attempted to increase employment rates and recognize the role of the family in welfare provision. Click here for more help with MLA citations. Essay on Welfare in America. Click here for more help with APA citations.
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Essay on Welfare in America Ultius. Copied to clipboard Click here for more help with MLA citations. Copied to clipboard Click here for more help with APA citations. Copied to clipboard Click here for more help with CMS citations. Copied to clipboard Click here for more help with Turabian citations. Rate this blog entry:. Tags America food stamps homelessness social welfare welfare welfare state. View author's profile Show more posts from author. Tested Daily Click to Verify.
The Ultius Promise With every order, you can count on the following: Terms Privacy Fair Use. For the poor who need to rent out, the Conservative government had set and achieved the goal of building , council housing per year in and . Between and , there were averagely , public houses being built every year . In the other hand, housing had switched to high-rise tower rather than council housing. This might be seen as a tradeoff of quality for quantity.
Surprisingly, the overall standards of amenities such as WC in-house did undergo an increase, despite property owner could enjoy consistently higher than household which rent from a private person . Interpretation behind could be both working and middle class were taking advantages from the state intervention; while perhaps those live in the tower suffer more.
The state did relieved people from squalor to some extent. However, there was a fluctuation to the extent of a shared benefit. Pressures were put by the Conservatives on local authorities to raise rents, which affected the low-income most . Tax relief to property owners such as the Schedule A tax, had benefited the richest landlord to a substantial proportion . Although the poor had taken up more of the subsidies for council tenant than the rich, the higher income group had substantially owning more properties thus acquired considerable granting on this respect as well .
Thus this essay argues that under the welfare state, every class could enjoy benefits to some extent so everyone was the winner. This did promote a more egalitarian society. However both health and healthcare were unable to be distributed equally from the NHS but largely benefiting the rich.
Whereas the patients from lower SEGs tend to receive a lower level and less frequent consultation or treatment despite their demand was higher in certain aspect, for instance hip replacement . Furthermore, infant mortality and stillbirth rate of lowest SEG was the highest . The HNS expenditure per unit of need is rather unequal. However this essay had argued that the rich were taking advantages from a longer consultation time as well as the standard of treatment.
To sum up, the better-off had obtained more benefits, including health and healthcare from the system. However the opportunity of pupils from higher social class was greater than their fellow students. The streaming of children was depended on the plus exam which measured the IQ of pupils; and this was found in favouring the middle-class and the professionals group  . Apart from examination, parental factor also played a part.
As working class family might not recognize the benefit behind further education, while perhaps the father did not receive much, so the money forgone from being hired might perceived as more costly than continuing education .
Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. Together these services are known as the 'big five' but these services tend to develop over time and have differed in quantity, availability and quality.
The essay will look at the aims of the welfare state from conception and how it has changed to present times. The welfare state being analysed is the welfare state in the United Kingdom. It will discuss the nature of the social democratic welfare state and liberal criticisms of .
Free sample essay on a welfare state. The concept of the welfare state is comparatively of recent origin. It came into prominence mainly after the Second World War. Its ideals and policies, popular in recent times are followed by a number of countries. The beveridge report started in the introduction of welfare state, and involved the main changes and these included the national health service act of which make benefit available to children and families and the National insurance act this act provides unemployment and sickness some benefits and housing The welfare state was not a response to poverty but was produced to encourage the .
Essays - Social Policy Essays Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. Together these services are known as the 'big five' but these services tend to develop over time and have differed in quantity, availability and quality. Welfare State Essay The welfare state was an essentially European invention that spread and developed in the states of western Europe and some of their New World offshoots. What is today known as the welfare state, Sozialstaat, l’état providence, or folkhemmet was most aptly described by historian Asa Briggs in a article as a state.