Though hundreds or thousands of links may appear for every search term entered, some of these sites will reflect overlap. In many instances, multiple websites will function as part of a wider network. Each site will pull in orders through its distinct order form. Orders are consequently directed to a repository site to which independently contracted writers have access. One staff of writers and one set of umbrella policies may actually serve several dozen companies or sites.
CCU lists as many as 23 services affiliated with Paper Experts, though many appear to be defunct now. From this latter fact, we can also deduce that the shelf life varies considerably from ghostwriting service to the next. Admittedly though, this inference probably does not differentiate a ghostwriting startup company from any other web-based business. By contrast, the best and most consistent paper writing companies are now more than a decade old. I can attest to the long-term survival of companies like custompapers.
Ghostwriting companies also vary widely in size. Most rely on a stable of independent contractors. However, this stable can range from just two or three writers to thousands.
So…I would take that unsubstantiated 94 percent with a grain of salt. As we will explore in a separate and more exhaustive article about the paper mill business, the buyer must always be wary.
Quality control can vary greatly from one company or writer to the next. The point that we raise with Crest Essays is that its staff of writers and its general output are substantial. This is true of at least several dozen if not several hundred companies of comparable size. There is little in the way of a comprehensive scientific review of the industry, its size, and the economy it commands.
The global nature of the business, the chosen anonymity of the customer base and the fact that at least some portion of vendors engages in only semi-legitimate business practices make it difficult to truly ascertain the reach of ghostwriting in education. From what is immediately apparent though, we can conclude two things about the prevalence of ghostwriting:.
In my experience, there are few freelance writing outlets where independent writers and unaffiliated clients are more readily, efficiently, and consistently paired with one another. In terms of prevalence, the qualitative takeaway for educators is basically this: It is extremely easy for students to cheat using ghostwriting services. The variance is usually determined by deadline.
Papers due in a week or more are typically bound to the low end of the pricing spectrum. For anything due in less than a week, the cost per page will go up as the number of days goes down.
A paper due in less than 24 hours will fall on the highest end of the cost-per-page spectrum. Another feature that each of my past employers has in common is the use of a writer-manager or, in the case of larger companies, multiple writer-managers. In nearly all cases, the writer-manager will serve as a liaison between the company and the independently contracted writer; and as a mediator in conflicts, disagreements or confusion between writers and customers.
Given the linguistic challenges that so many ghostwriting clients face, the third of these occasions happens rather frequently. Each company has its own way of processing orders and delegating assignments.
The mode of delegation is usually a determining factor in the operational model. Below is a brief outline of the three preeminent operational models. The models outlined here are drawn largely from personal experience. A writer-manager will send assignments directly to a writer based on declared areas of expertise. Assignments will come with instructions, deadline, and amount of compensation. When a writer agrees to take on an assignment, he or she becomes responsible for submission by the deadline.
Based on the deadline, length, and anticipated difficulty of an assignment, writers will quote prices for prospective assignments. Though writers create their own bids, relative market value still applies. Bids that overshoot the anticipated value are rarely matched with assignments. Another writer will likely quote a fairer price. This is the most sophisticated and efficient front- and back-end model.
When an order is placed through a website, pricing is automatically determined per-page based on the length of time until deadline. The order is also automatically placed on a bulletin board visible to writers by way of username and password. This gives the writer an opportunity to visit the board and select orders at his or her discretion. The ghostwriting industry enjoys a customer base comprised of three primary demographics.
These are the likeliest perpetrators of ghostwritten plagiarism: International students often arrive at American universities without a background or meaningful support in English composition. According to a study, these students lack the skills for paraphrasing and inferential use of sources possessed by their English-speaking counterparts.
International students comprise a ready-made source of revenue for the ghostwriting business. These students turn to ghostwriting services out of a combination of desperation and expedience. A startling number American students—for whom English is a native language—will actually suffer from many of these exact same deficits.
The viability of the ghostwriting industry shines a spotlight on the tragically overlooked prevalence of students at the undergraduate and even graduate levels who simply lack the skills or knowledge to produce university-level writing or research.
Some ghostwriting clients simply lack the motivation and interest to complete their own work, a condition that Farnese et al. In other cases, the lazy student may, in addition to being unmotivated, lack the necessary writing and research skills to complete the task at hand. These students turn to ghostwriting services as the path of least resistance. As we proceed with the discussion of detection and prevention, it will be useful to consider that different strategies may apply to different demographics.
In the conversation on prevention, the motivation to cheat is of considerable importance and can help educators to target students with preventative strategies. As we will find, removing the sense of pressure or dread that comes with academic deficiency or misplacement may be an important part of contending with ghostwriting and with academic cheating on a more general scale.
Ghostwriting is hardly a new phenomenon nor is it one inherently dependent upon web proliferation. As I mentioned, I myself got started the old-fashioned way, taking orders from fellow Rutgers classmates and accumulating a growing independent business entirely by word of mouth.
However, the web has proliferated and simplified cheating, dramatically expanding the accessibility, visibility, and ease with which students can lift, recycle or otherwise claim authorship of work that is not their own.
Consequently, the growth of this industry helped to provoke the growth of the plagiarism-detection industry of which Turnitin is a leading example. Turnitin represents the gold standard in plagiarism detection.
Even so, given the limitations inherent in plagiarism detection, even Turnitin has no way to bring its extensive empirical data to bear on ghostwriting. However, among the 10 types identified, ghostwriting is not included. This is not because Turnitin is unaware of the ghostwriting industry.
To the contrary, the company has shown itself quite open and dedicated to better understanding the impact of ghostwriting. For many ghostwriting customers, this detection software actually provides a modicum of comfort, suggesting that the instructor may not be reading the work and simply be letting automated plagiarism checkers test for originality.
Presuming the ghostwriter has created a wholly original piece, Turnitin software will not detect any irregularity. Further, it is quite common for a customer to include a specification in their instructions that all completed work will be passed through Turnitin or a similar program. This means that the ghostwriter can often make practical decisions that will ensure no irregularities are detected.
The motivation to do so is simply sound business practice and helps to facilitate repeat patronage. But most ghostwriting companies also succeed on the strength of the return customer. Each company that I worked for provided the customer with a field in the order form by which to request a preferred writer. I would receive an automatic email notification telling me that a customer had requested my services. In addition to the implication that such repeat customers have clearly succeeded in passing ghostwritten work off as their own on multiple occasions, this repeat business denotes that ghostwriters are actively engaged in practices designed to evade detection.
With these conditions in mind, we point to a handful of detection and deterrence challenges that are unique to ghostwriting: Most ghostwriting companies are faithful to this service guarantee and will terminate independent contractors for failure to comply. Though the optimistic educator may take some comfort in the view that paper mills are not legitimate enough to constitute a threat, there are rules for professional paper writers and the more successful companies will enforce them.
Chief among these rules is the responsibility to provide completely original, never-before-used material crafted to respond to a specific assignment inquiry. Ghostwriting places the onus on the educator to have initial cause for suspicion. This requires the individual grading a written assignment to sense a disconnect between the student and the assignment, which of course requires some initial familiarity with the student in question.
There are a great many educational contexts in which this is difficult if not impossible. When I began my ghostwriting career at Rutgers, there was no mystery as to why the semi-coherent, fraternity-bound, budding alcoholics who used my services were able to pass my work off as their own. Courses are routinely taught in lecture halls containing hundreds of students; written assignments are often reviewed by teaching assistants; and any personal interaction between professor and student is strictly optional.
Naturally, students who plan on defrauding the professor are distinctly less likely to pursue a personal relationship with him or her. These challenges are compounded even further as a consequence of distance learning, online education and for-profit education the last of which I mention here both because much of it is exclusively online and because ghostwritten cheating abounds in this context.
Learning contexts like this demonstrate just how unlikely it really is that a professor will have cause to question the authorship of an assignment once it has passed through plagiarism detection software. That said, ghostwriting is not confined to the web class or giant lecture hall.
I was also often hired to write in direct response to professor feedback, especially in post-graduate contexts. This suggests that some students are not dissuaded from employing ghostwriting services in more intimate settings, even as intimate as one-on-one interaction with an academic mentor.
Cheating is, of course, a serious allegation and students have a lot riding on the completion of their education. So obviously, the average student will go to great lengths to deny any such allegations.
Students are not afraid to get litigious if need be. The point is, as an educator, one must be very careful about levying the accusation without hard evidence. This is true regardless of the chosen method of cheating. What differentiates ghostwriting is that, true to its name, it leaves a far less visible trail. Assuming that an instructor has cause to suspect an assignment, he or she now has the unenviable obligation to demonstrate guilt based on a well-informed and probably correct suspicion.
The process is an uphill climb. Plagiarism detection software or even a quick Google search can verify suspicion of a cut-and-paste job and yield incontrovertible proof. Part of the discussion of detection and deterrence must logically revolve around finding ways of accumulating concrete proof based on suspicion.
Taken together, these challenges render many traditional methods of combating plagiarism even flimsier when applied to ghostwriting. This means that most professors have almost certainly graded ghostwritten material without ever realizing it.
There are perhaps as many others who have graded ghostwritten materials with some level of suspicion but without the means, institutional support or emotional energy to translate this into proof.
The challenges specific to ghostwriting call for an approach that is not merely reactive i. That is to say that educators and institutions can take certain preemptive steps that both discourage cheating by way of ghostwriting and place educators in a more advantageous position to spot questionable work and acquire meaningful proof of its third-party authorship.
A college student spends an entire semester goofing off. Naturally, he shows up for the final exam with all the answers written on his arm.
He finishes the exam and brings it to the front of the room. As he places it on the top of the test pile, the professor looks down at him from the lectern. He observes the cheat-sheet scrawled on the student and demands to see his arm. The student responds indignantly: The professor admits that he does not. So the student shoves his exam in the middle of the stack and quickly departs. There is a lot about the system of higher education, as it is today, that makes cheating easy.
The goal of the present account is to help educators create a campus atmosphere where cheating is neither as easy nor as desirable. This calls for a combination of reactive and proactive measures, an encompassing approach that broadens and gives nuance to the fight against cheating.
There are far-reaching educational issues implicated by the viability of the ghostwriting industry. To reiterate the challenges facing students with learning or language deficiencies, policing alone does not get to the root of the problem.
The goal of this strategy, therefore, is to take on cheating both as a violation of academic integrity and as a symptom of some broader problems within our educational system. Design refers to the way a professor constructs assignments, course materials, tests, classroom time and the semester-long curriculum. This is an area in education where quality control runs the gamut from excellence to criminal incompetence.
There are plenty of professors who work tirelessly to tailor assignments, materials and examinations to remain in-step with constantly evolving subject matter, student culture and best practices. But there are also plenty of professors who recycle old materials without scrutiny and who depend wholly on text-based content which most students could acquire without professor mediation. With those professors who take the latter approach, students may find cheating not only easier but also more susceptible to rationalization.
According to a study from Teaching Sociology , strategic design is one effective path to mitigating the risk of plagiarism. One of the most common forms of cheating involves submitting work produced by students in previous courses.
Relatively subtle changes to assessment tasks can be enough to alert markers to cheating. Case studies, contexts, data sets, and actual items can be changed while assessing the same outcomes. When I worked as a ghostwriter, lazy students helped me to make my living but it was the lazy professors that made my life easier.
Even just 20 years ago, the risks of reusing the same basic assignment or exam were modest. There have always been on-campus repositories of completed assignments available for student purchase.
This is not to suggest that the ghostwriter will struggle to complete an assignment that is otherwise unique and original in nature. To say it simply, a generic assignment begets a generic essay.
If this is all an instructor seeks from his or her students, said instructor makes it nearly impossible to differentiate between the work of a pupil and the work of a person who has never set a foot in the lecture hall. If, by contrast, one designs materials, assignments and exams with thought, care, and specificity, one has much better odds of spotting the work of an outsider.
Class time should be used to challenge students with unique and fun writing exercises. There are a lot of ways to integrate this strategy into an existing curriculum. Assignments can be formal and woven into the grading structure or they can simply be loosely defined writing activities designed to promote critical thinking. The important thing is that these assignments will require students to write thoughtfully and uniquely on course-relevant subjects, providing the instructor with readily verifiable writing samples throughout a semester.
No matter how convincingly a ghostwriter writes on a given subject, this approach provides a document whose authorship is not in question as a point of comparison.
For assignments of greater depth, a balance between in-class and out-of-class draft-writing offers a measure of oversight even as the student pursues an assignment independently. The caveat with this strategy is that there may be nothing stopping the student from outsourcing each and every draft of the assignment.
However, using the multi-draft process can stretch an assignment out across weeks or months. This results in a greater length of exposure for the cheating student. Instead of the once-and-done security of getting away with a single ghostwritten assignment, each student knows that his or her work will be held up to sustained and ongoing scrutiny.
By inserting one-on-one conferences into this draft process, the instructor can heighten this scrutiny by requiring each student to defend the approach, argument, and decisions comprising the written work. This is also an opportunity to challenge students to craft unique arguments based on course content. This challenge may even strain the credibility of submitted assignments to the point of making them more detectable. In other words, the assignment instructs the student to write about a life-changing experience and the customer leaves me, the ghostwriter, with the power to define this life-changing experience.
Naturally, not every subject or discipline lends itself to personalization. Most ghostwriters have no problem with a little creative writing but, again, this approach gives an educator the chance to spot a mismatch between a student and the written work. Just as experienced ghostwriters become accustomed to seeing the exact same assignments over and over, they also get accustomed to seeing the same sources and course materials again and again.
Instructors can reduce the ease with which an outsider can replicate old assignments by updating course materials and creating new assignments on an annual basis. Ghostwriters rely on materials that are readily available online and prefer the efficiency of assignments that can be summoned from memory and experience. In addition to creating unique course materials, a course should be designed to distinguish the in-class experience from the experience of reading about something on Wikipedia.
Most texts are readily available online. By contrast, a lecture, a class discussion and the experience of being a part of both should be something unique and impossible to replicate. Naturally, if they can get it on the Internet, so can any ghostwriter. The goal is obviously not to eliminate, supersede, or overlook the standard texts.
The classics are important. But differentiating what happens in a classroom and calling for written work that reflects this differentiation do create a genuine challenge for the ghostwriter. Predictable testing methods i. Multiple-choice, machine-graded exams help the student differentiate between reporting to class on test day and outsourcing take-home writing work.
Merging essay-writing and test-taking removes this impression. Instructors can create mixed format tests that include multiple-choice, essay questions, short-answer questions, etc. This approach requires the student to demonstrate writing capacity during in-class testing. Once again, this approach results in the creation of a written document that one can be certain originated from the student in question.
This forms a good basis for comparison with suspicious take-home work and—insofar as it also might give the student pause before submitting ghostwritten work—also makes an excellent segue into our discussion on deterrence.
Deterrence refers to ways of diminishing the inclination, motive, or desire to purchase a ghostwritten paper. A Research in Higher Education study, seeking to understand the motives behind student cheating, finds that cheating is often rational in nature. That is, students at least believe that they are cheating out of ease, normalcy, or necessity.
The study finds that the onus falls on instructors to live up to certain student expectations regarding clarity and engagement of course content.
The study identifies this as the best route to deterring the rationalized impulse to use a ghostwriting service. In other words, deterrence should revolve around strategies that make cheating seem less rational. The NZQA suggests that one way to deter cheating is to be in a state of constant evidence-gathering. The NZQA notes that such evidence can extend from written work to a mix of formative and summative assessments as well as informal ongoing observations. You can request order revisions at no additional costs up to two weeks after the completion of your assignment.
To ensure maximum discretion and security, all files and data conveyed to us will be deleted from our servers following your confirmation of the satisfactory receipt of your work. When you decide to hire one of our writing experts, we guarantee you a ghostwriter with substantial academic know-how and expertise in his or her subject area. Continuous efforts to create and maintain the highest standard of academic quality are what makes our writing service stand out.
Every paper or thesis written by our experts is in accordance with the current scientific standards and latest research in the respective field. Free correction loops and partial deliveries grant you full control over all proceedings. Once you receive our quotation you benefit from absolute cost transparency.
More than highly-qualified ghostwriters are at the heart of our writing service. From Law , to Business , to Medicine — our experts cover nearly all academic subjects.
If are you looking for support by a ghostwriter from your field of study who has professional experience, is skilled at academic writing and is a native English-speaker, then you have come to the right place. To assure the best possible quality for your project, every academic text we create is double-checked by a professional editor.
The final editing includes careful examination of all citations and references, precise formatting, adherence to all formal guidelines, language polishing and a review of the coherence of the arguments. A detailed plagiarism test testifies that your text is absolutely unique. The report of the plagiarism checker allows you to make sure that all sources cited in the paper are correctly referenced and trustworthy. Extensive editing is a exclusive feature of our service and gives you additional security.
Our editors do not only check your text for spelling and grammar, they will also make sure that your paper makes a coherent point and that all formal requirements are met. Whether a research proposal or a journal publication — your project is important to us.
Ghost Writing Research Paper Services; Ghost Writing Term Paper Services; Ghostwriter Bachelor Thesis Services; Our Best Ghost Writers; If you are looking for a great service to help you with your academic needs our academic papers ghostwriting services just might be the ticket. We help you when you are in a time crunch, 5/5.
Our custom ghostwriting company provides college students with ghostwritten academic papers no matter what type of assignment it is: essay, book review, research paper, speech or dissertation.
I am a former Academic Ghostwriter. I wrote papers for money. AMA! submitted 5 years ago How long would it take you to write a research paper if you didn't know much on the topic? nursing, accounting, or anything involving numbers, as I have dyscalculia. I pass that on to ghostwriter friends who are knowledgable on the subjects. I got a. Research Papers Using The Ghost Writer by Philip Roth The Ghost Writer Research Paper accounts for the Jewish peoples time during holocaust. Research papers using Philip Roth's The Ghost Writer can focus on the book or just use Roth's work as a point of reference for .
Get a better grasp of the benefits of hiring our dissertation ghost writing service! Our team of highly qualified. Best Ghost Writers. About Ghost Writers; Ghost Writing Research Paper Services; Ghost Writing Term Paper Services; When using our dissertation ghostwriting services, you will be provided with a fully qualified and 5/5. Publication Research Papers Research Proposal Seminar Paper Statistics Term Papers. yet anonymous, communication with their ghostwriter — in other words, a service that keeps its promises. With ACAD WRITE, you are choosing a reliable and discreet partner that lives up to those expectations. ACAD WRITE the ghostwriter go up.