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Reconstruction Era Essays (Examples)

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❶With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of as written in the constitution to win an election.

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The repercussions of war included loss of life, land, and livelihood. Patriarchy and racism remained entrenched, but the emancipation of slaves significantly transformed the social landscape of the South. Liberated slaves started from scratch without access to cultural or social capital, and many eventually migrated North. African-American culture was able to emerge, and in many cases, to flourish. Meanwhile, the white power structures in the South resigned themselves to ignorance, causing the South to remain the most backwards, uneducated, and poor region of the United States for over a century.

Far from inspiring the South to transform its social, cultural, economic, and political institutions, the entrenched plantation society and Confederate identity took deep root there.

Jim Crow symbolizes the extent to…… [Read More]. American Elections of Shady American Elections of The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun.

During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard.

Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections.

Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat.

The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as…… [Read More]. Democratic and Republican Parties Politics. The Democratic Party did not win another presidential election until when Woodwork Wilson was elected due to a split vote between Republican conservative candidate, William Howard Taft and Republican progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt.

The New Freedom "was the slogan of Woodrow Wilson who came into presidential office on the platform of promising reform on a liberal basis.

Specifically, through an extension of Federal regulations of banking and industry. Further reform through setting up the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission as well as strengthening antitrust statutes on the part of Wilson.

Much needed reforms to legislation of welfare was attended by Wilson. Wilson's first Administration demonstrated breaking of connections to the old tradition of Democratic laissez faire. The Republican Party united once again nominated Rutherford. Although the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden, was said to have won by popular votes, the…… [Read More]. U S vs Harris This Is. Tucker, deputy sheriff of said county, from giving and securing to the said Robert R. Smith and others, naming them, the due and equal protection of the laws of said state, in this, to-wit, that at and before the entering into said conspiracy, the said Robert R.

Smith and others, naming them, were held in the custody of said deputy sheriff by virtue of certain warrants duly issued against them, to answer certain criminal charges, and it thereby became and was the duty of said deputy sheriff to safely keep in his custody the said Robert R.

Smith and others while so under arrest, and then and there give and secure to them the equal protection of the laws of the State of Tennessee, and that the defendants did then and there conspire together for the purpose of preventing and hindering the said deputy sheriff from then and there safely…… [Read More]. Out of the House of Bondage. The Transformation of the Plantation Household In the book, Thavolia Glymph gives us an inspection of the power influences that are linked among white and black southern women that are in the interior of the traditional plantation household in the 18th century epoch, Civil ar.

Thavolia Glymph, in Out of the House of Bondage, gives us a convincing look inside what life was like inside the southern plantation houses in pre-Civil ar south.

In the book, the author showed us how life in the antebellum days had basically turned into what was considered a political showground, where subjected black women and white women contested against the implications of labor and independence during slavery and…… [Read More].

Government Politics Texas - A Good. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal: First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them.

They are far easier to amend than the U. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings Standard Joke About America in the s. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily.

This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…… [Read More].

Fatal Flood -- Causes and. According to many historians, that relief effort was instrumental in propelling Hoover into the national spotlight and eventually helped him win the presidential election. The Mississippi Flood as the ause of Racial Tension Approximately , people were directly affected by the Mississippi Flood of , having to relocate because their homes, property, and entire communities were completely destroyed by the flood. Almost half of them were housed in relief camps of whom almost three-quarters were African-American.

In many cases, the conditions sparked racial tensions and events such as what occurred in Greenville, Mississippi. More than 10, people were stranded without drinking water, food, or any other supplies for several days.

When boats finally arrived, they initially rescued only children and white women, leaving white men, and African-Americans. In another event that made nationwide headlines, police had been sent to round up relief workers from the "Negro" areas. When an…… [Read More].

Gordon Rule Essay and Political Success. Limited the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the President and Congress in the Late 19th Century In the nineteenth century, the American government saw many Americans worry about the responsiveness, complexity, or size of their democracy. Having this perspective in mind, the American government of the nineteenth century was small and orderly, having a great machine that oversaw the state at night and held in check by the yeoman citizenry.

Moreover, the lines of authority were overlapping where the federal structure took measures to ensure that the national government and the states each had their precise and respective orbits. As such, the structures ensured that the federal government remained small and limited. The little system of regulations precluded the emergence of the sprawling regulatory state having a cacophony of interest groups that competed, the bureaucrats were unresponsive, the politicians were ambitious, and citizen-clients.

In summary, the idealized image of the nineteenth…… [Read More]. Klan politics are eerily being played out in modern conservative movements such as the Tea Party. While the Tea Party does not officially endorse the KKK, the two groups share many common objectives including the mistrust of new immigrants. Today's Klansmen are basically "unhappy about the social politics of America's post-industrial, pluralistic society" and they "feel left out.

The Ku Klux Klan. Working Class Race the Correlation. Each brings the evidence to light by utilizing a different set of sources, one slightly more personal and narrative than the other but both clearly expressive of the expansion of the ideals of America as a "white" masculine society of working class people that needed and obtained voice through ideals that attempted, at least to some degree to skirt the issue of race.

Race was represented in both works as something ardently discussed but that went completely unresolved, as the "white" ideology of representation and power dominated the practicality of the day.

This reader was moved by reading both books, a greater understanding of how many times race was set on the backburner, even when it was something many had to look square in the face hundreds of times in a day is essential to a greater understanding of just how complicated tie issue really was and still is in…… [Read More]. Validity of Data America Considers.

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth. That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper.

America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.

Spanish and American Democracy The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe.

Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the s that are also said to mark the transition as well.

The philosophical foundations of the…… [Read More]. Mis-Education of the Negro Carter G. Especially in terms of the role of education in the first half of the twentieth century, aspects of the Black experience that impacted the education of Black people, and what they themselves might want to achieve through an education.

His book The Mis-Education of the Negro addresses such issues in terms of a number of specific dimensions, such as the impact of slavery on the African-American psyche, the degree to which African-Americans had been mis-educated, the need for greater self-reliance among members of the Black population, that Blacks needed to develop their own social order and not imitate the white order, and the meaning of political education in the African-American community. Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion.

Oates was a professor African-American and U. His most notable works chronicle the antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction eras of American history. He is particularly well-known for his biographies of the period including his works on Lincoln. The Fires of Jubilee: Oates offers his historical work as a companion to as well as a rebuttal of some of the existing literature on Turner, including the famous novel by William Styron.

Although an academic, Oates writes in an engaging and popular manner that has made many of his historical works of literature best sellers…… [Read More].

Equal Protection the Supreme Court. The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases 16 Wall. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed.

Discriminations against them had been habitual. Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. Educational Law How Lawful How. Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional.

Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law.

In and , radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…… [Read More]. The Emancipation Proclamation of granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation African pp. During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in , white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings African pp.

This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century African pp. These salespeople are most frequently seen during the beginning of the college semester and are usually young and attractive and smiling, barely older than the students themselves.

Quite often, if a student fills out an application for the credit card, he or she may receive a small toy or a gigantic in exchange for his or her pains. These smiling individuals prey upon students when they are at their most vulnerable. Most of these students have just had to pay hundreds of dollars for…… [Read More]. Social Justice for African Americans. Martin Luther King Jr. The author of this document proposes to write a paper about the life and works of Martin Luther King Jr.

It will specifically evaluate the merits of his integrationist works which he foisted upon the nation in the name of civil rights. This topic satisfies the requirement for this research paper in a number of ways. Firstly, it is predicated on one of the five historic ethnic minority groups that are the focus of the class for which this paper is written.

He labored hard to attain civil rights for this group of people. One of the primary ways that he sought to achieve this objective was through the integration of African-Americans with Caucasians.

Secondly, the actions of King Jr. Gang Activity Please See Notes. This becomes further complex as economic ties blur between the poor and middle classes and the expectations each has about the definition of materialistic success.

By belonging to a subculture, however, one can feel part of something larger, insulated a bit from the criticisms and unattainable messages of the upper middle class, and certainly a way to belong and feel important with one's own environment Siegel and Welsh, , Contemporary Urban Issues- in the United States, the National Gang Center estimates that there are almost , active street gang members, most concentrated in Los Angeles County and the greater Chicago area.

Unfortunately, Native American communities are also being overrun by gang violence and drug trafficking. Most tribal communities, in fact, have significant gang activity; contributing also to the continued economic downturn…… [Read More]. Will Rogers -- American Intellect. This, in combination with his slick use of language, and ability to use up-to-date sland and invented words to fit his needs, linked him not only with the cowboy tradition, but speech and mannerism of the American South.

Because of this easy going style -- and ability to cut through the extraneous and find the base truth in the matter at hand, allowed him to move through social classes in all countries, standing for the virtues of a self-made-man, with the obvious respect for capitalism, utilitarianism, and faith in the progression of humans Brown, The standard definition of an intellectual is a person who uses intelligence thought and reason in a critical way to analyze issues and give not just a summation of rote memorization of facts, but of analysis and synthesis.

Was Will ogers an intellectual? How could he not be -- he meets every standard, and then…… [Read More]. Death Penalty Capital punishment is a controversial topic because it involves the taking of a human life as a punishment.

Traditionally, Judeo-Christian and other mainstream religions strictly prohibit killing because they regard the matter of giving and taking of human life as exclusively within the jurisdiction of God and never something that is appropriately executed by the operation of human decisions or judicial determination. In modern times, secular society has recognized several other equally important conceptual objections to relying on capital punishment within the framework of crime control and punishment.

Specifically, there may be good reason to believe that the death penalty has, historically, been applied unequally to offenders of minority communities and to members of society who lack the necessary means to secure their legal rights to their fullest extent by virtue of poverty. Moreover, despite the often-cited proposed justification that the death penalty provides an effective deterrent to…… [Read More].

Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty.

This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism. The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority.

This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]. Reparations Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods?

Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U. Conyers This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur. It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist.

Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In , Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H. Changes in Supreme Court Philosophies. The ehnquist Court A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices often called strict constructionism is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history.

Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren.

The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…… [Read More]. Women and Gender Bias the. Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?

If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view.

Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action. Title VI, section…… [Read More]. Depression or Recession Determining Whether. Third, economic depressions spread from one nation to others whereas economic recessions remain substantially isolated where they first occur and they are eased partially by the strength of national economies elsewhere.

Finally, contemporary analyses of economic downturns suggest that distortions to industrial labor markets that keep wages above market-clearing levels are more significant than even bank failures Ohanian, Recommendations and Conclusion It is recommended that public statements on the matter highlight the failure of the opposition to recognize or understand the fundamental nature of economic depressions and the dangers associated with ignoring the important similarities between the economic crisis and the Great Depression.

The current economic crisis shares all of the conceptual hallmarks of an economic depression, including the potential to persist over a longer term and spread globally more than it has already. In that regard, the key to overcoming the current economic crisis is in supporting…… [Read More].

Starbucks One Does Not Generally. However, the growth of the corporation introduced the concept of a fiduciary duty between stockholders and board members, in both open and closed corporations. Put succinctly, the board of directors has a duty to its shareholders to increase profits, and majority shareholders may have a duty to the corporation to vote in a way that increases profits. As a result, business ethics can actually conflict with both corporate social responsibility and global corporate responsibility; because business ethics may indicate a less ethical means of practice if it would increase profits.

As a result, many corporations have included responsible practices in their corporate mandate, thereby making it clear to any and all potential stockholders that one of the goals of the company is to engage in responsible and morally ethical behavior.

Starbucks appears to be one such company. Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism and crime rates in general conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration. Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services.

Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests.

Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies. History of Huey P Long. The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment. This became known as "loody Monday.

Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed.

Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…… [Read More]. In the Wake of War.

War Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century.

In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification.

Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress. The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…… [Read More].

Dw Griffith Book Precis Henderson. Griffith trusted the intelligence of his audience. For instance, he showed that splicing two different sequences such as a house on fire and the approaching fire engine together over the course of a film would not confuse an audience. He took his work seriously, and conducted research to film "Birth of a Nation. But Griffith focused only on research that confirmed his racist ideas. His screenplay for "Birth of a Nation" was based upon a novel called The Klansman by an unrepentant pro-Confederate Southerner.

Black leaders protested the film even in its day and the film remains widely credited for causing resurgence in the popularity of the Klu Klux Klan, a Southern Reconstruction-era instrument of hatred.

Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. The Political Thought of Abraham Lincoln. American History at a Glance. References Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. Holt and Company, The Comparative Approach to American History. The Philosophy of American History: Periods in American History.

The Arnold-Howard Publishing Co. Works Cited DuBois, W. The negro mind reaches. The meaning of freedom: Era of Reconstruction View Full Essay. Works Cited From Revolution to Reconstruction. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction June 20, Retrieved September 11, , from http: A Survey, 14th Edition.

Oxford University Press, The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. The Civil Rights Act of History Reconstruction View Full Essay.

Works Cited Foner, Eric. Reconstruction of Iraq View Full Essay. Why the UN matters. The handover in Iraq. The Nile of New England: The Progressive Era Frontier Regional School District. Women and the Progressive Era. University of Maryland -- College Park. Retrieved from the Internet at http: New York Times, A1.

The Thirteenth Amendment and the lost origins of civil rights. Duke Law Journal, 50 6 , Racial orders, Congress, and the agricultural welfare state, Studies in American Political Development, 25, Resistance, rebirth, and redemption: Historical Reflections, 35 1 , Railroads Following the Panic.

The Homestead Act of This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11 3 , A history of the American people. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Works Cited Buhle, Paul.

The Legacy of the IWW. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ The Origins of American Housing Reform. Works Cited Kelly, Martin.

Oxford University Press, , History of Black Americans. Women's History View Full Essay. Fellman, Michael et al. The Civil War and its Aftermath 2nd ed. The End of the Civil War. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Works Cited Oshinsky, David. Works Cited Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress. In , the Civil war was finally brought to an end.

The five years of war was the nation's most devastating and wrenching experience. Although the Union was saved and slavery had ended, the South being defeated and occupied by union forces was ruined and in a state of disaster.

Public structures, private homes, and farm buildings had been burnt, rail road tracks uprooted, cotton gins wrecked, and the earth scorched in many sections of the defeated land. The nation's next task was to rebuild the ruined South and the government's plan to do this is known as Reconstruction. In the South Reconstruction meant rebuilding the economy, establishing new state and local governments and establishing a new social structure between whites and blacks. During the war Lincoln had expanded his presidency.

With his power he hoped to set up loyal governments in the Southern states that were under Union control. Lincoln appointed new temporary governors and instructed each to call a convention to create a new state government as soon as a group of the state's citizen totaling 10 percent of the voters in the presidential election had signed oaths of loyalty to the Union.

Under this plan new governments were formed in Louisiana, Tennessee and Arkansas but the Congress refused to recognize them.


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The Reconstruction of the Union After the Civil War - The reconstruction of the Union began under President Lincoln before the end of the war, and carried on by President Johnson after the assassination of President Lincoln.

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Reconstruction Essay essays Reconstruction was the period of 'repair' after the civil war. It was to repair the North and South, politically, socially, and economically. It was also to rejoin the South back into the union, as it had succeeded during the civil war.

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The Reconstruction Period - The period after the Civil War, - , was called the Reconstruction period. Abraham Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War as Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South. Nov 26,  · Success of Reconstruction Reconstruction was the time period following the Civil War, which lasted from to , in which the United States began to rebuild. The term can also refer to the process the federal government used to readmit the defeated Confederate states to the Union.

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Reconstruction Era. The period after the Civil war has always been referred to as the reconstruction era. The reconstruction era can be defined from two perspectives. First, it covers the story of the United States between the periods of to Sep 29,  · Words: Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Reconstruction a splendid failure? The Reconstruction period after the Civil ar was a time when America attempted to rebuild .