These are a series of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, urging ratification of the Constitution Wills, For many years, historians, jurists, and political scientists share a general consensus that The Federalist is the most important work of political philosophy and pragmatic government ever written in the United States USDS, It has been compared to Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, and Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, and has been used by many nations as a base for their constitutions.
One of the main parts of the Federalist Papers is the establishment of a system of checks and balances, which is now the root of democracy USDS, This idea of checks and balances is based on a profoundly realistic view of human nature.
While the Founding Fathers, which include…… [Read More]. Political Philosophy Generally I Hold. Just as in the realm of economics, different individuals possess different capabilities, aptitudes, and qualifications for different careers. Civil rights issues and equality in academia and employment have progressed to the point where less deserving and less qualified individuals receive some of the opportunities that were better earned by others who are more qualified.
This reverse racism and reverse sexism is not conducive to a society that emphasizes initiative and effort and which rewards self-responsibility and objective merit above all else. Whereas pervious generations of women and racial and ethnic minorities were deprived of the opportunity to compete fairly with males and non-minority individuals, nowadays, no such impediments exist; therefore, opportunities in both academia and the professional workplace must revert to recognizing and rewarding merit and achievement and not gender and ethic or racial makeup instead.
As in the case of other aspects of the appropriate role of…… [Read More]. Why this concept wasn't there in ancient Greece: The central concept behind Greek civilization was to have a political center that does not interfere with the individual rights. The notion of individual rights was not apparent in Ancient Greek was because there was no absolute dominant power, who would rule over the populace. Everyone was free and everyone had freedom to practice what they believed.
People shared common heritage based on membership status in society but the customs remained within the realms of the individual through polis. There was no hierarchical depotism where the people have to serve to their superiors. Freedom hence, meant that the Greek citizens enjoyed self-governance.
Machiavelli, with production of his book The Prince, made a turning point in the history of individual rights. He negates the supreme power of…… [Read More].
Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle's attempts to come to an understanding of human nature ultimately lead him to an understanding of justice.
He attempts to understand how humans can reach true happiness, and delves deeply into the definitions of true happiness eudaimonia and virtue, and outlines how virtue and happiness are intertwined.
Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics deals with metaphysics, and focuses on ides like soul, happiness, virtue, and friendship. In Nicomachean Ethics, he concludes that happiness ultimately derives from activities of the soul that are in accordance with virtue. Says Aristotle "happiness is an activity of soul in accordance with perfect virtue" Book I. Aristotle argues that the life that leads to the most happiness is a life of philosophical contemplation. However, he acknowledges that in order to achieve this life some members of a city-state must live a life of politics, adhering to the principles of justice, the highest of the virtues.
The writer explores how they operate and argues that they damage not only the ruled but the ruler. The writer uses several angles to argue this point and illustrate the ways the ruler is negatively impacted by having such a society under him or her.
There were eight sources used to complete this paper. Throughout history societies have struggled to discover the most palatable way to exist. Some societies work on the premise that equality is the answer while others believe class systems pave the way for success. The inegalitarian systems that have been and are currently in place have received a lot of scrutiny in recent years.
The inegalitarian system of society promotes the idea that class systems work. Whether it is the cache system of India or the class system seen in other nations those who live them and those who rule them often…… [Read More].
Political Philosophies When We Talk. Marx further included that finally the biased behavior of the working class will end this dictatorship period, and a class less society will establish. He believed that for the formation of this society people need to launch an organized movement against the dictatorship and only a successful revolution would lead to the formation of society of "Communism" Skoble, When we talk about the political philosophy, we can observe that both John Locke and Karl Marx are in favor of the idea that when there is a need of change then an organized revolution is compulsory.
People cannot get their rights until they demand for it because it's natural thing that you need to raise your voice in order to get your right otherwise other will keep it as their own possession.
The point of differ come when we talk about the scenario in which both of them forwarded their…… [Read More].
Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice.
Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes.
As both…… [Read More]. Plato and Machiavelli can be considered theorists of the ideal state, and each gives a high position to the military and military arts in achieving and maintaining order in society.
However, they do have different views of the ultimate place and purpose of the military. In Plato's Republic, the philosopher uses Socrates to investigate the nature of the city-state and what the ideal city-state should be. The philosophical inquiry in this dialogue addresses two primary conceptions, conceptions which are linked under the heading of idealism, with one detailing Plato's epistemology and the other his political philosophy.
The first is a metaphysical consideration of the nature of life and the world and how we can know what we know, while…… [Read More].
The Prince, written , intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power. Niccolo Machiavelli's political treatise "The Prince" deals with a series of matters concerning political stability and the means available to make it possible.
Considering that the writer lived in a period dominated by political instability, it is not surprising that some of the methods he proposed in order to restore order were somewhat unorthodox. From his perspective, moral acts were in certain situations pointless, as people actually needed to be controlled with the help of manipulating techniques. Machiavelli was basically interested in promoting the concept of evil, even with the fact that he attempted to mask this by posing in a person deeply concerned about his nation.
He considered that in order to be able to control a…… [Read More]. Justice ethics and political philosophy rawls. Relativism is too convenient a response to resolving conflicts of interest and divergent views of governance. However, an alternative to the universalism versus relativism debate lies in Rawl's concept of justice as being the fundamental tenet of a constitutional democracy.
Rawls also bases his concept of justice and political philosophy on the underlying importance of consensus Baier, Interestingly, consensus implies a utilitarian ethical framework, which Rawls claims to move away from: Rawls means that consensus enables universal justice and fairness, but not a justice rooted in religious or moral precepts.
A political philosophy like Rawls's that is focused on justice cannot distance itself from universalism, especially…… [Read More]. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided.
This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided. Overview of The Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought Yarbrough, It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius.
The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…… [Read More]. Political Theory if Nothing Else.
For example, one can consider the following quote from Hobbes: In other words, Hobbes is saying that every person has within them certain rights, yearnings and liberties; as such, the individual is entitled, and indeed should, pursue their own interests and not be oppressed by rulers. Likewise, rulers should not attempt to force subjects into submission or to rule by intimidation or fear- for Hobbes, power must be earned and maintained through a level of fairness ogers, et al.
Within this scope, the ruler should be motivated, in Hobbes' opinion, by serving the interests of the people over whom they govern. Likewise, the citizens would be involved in the political process,…… [Read More].
Philosophy While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men.
This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues.
Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]. Political Psychology Discuss How the Politics -. Political Psychology Discuss how the politics - is - complicated that model is different from symbolic racism in terms of the outcomes these forms of racism produce.
Use two examples to substantiate your arguments. In many democracies, one of the core principals is respecting the rights of everyone.
This is in spite of race, income or ethnicity in determining opportunities and how an individual is living their life. On the surface, this is the ideal of all democracies, yet underneath it all there are various challenges.
This is because there are a wide variety of political forces that will have an impact on the forms of racism that are produced. One way to understand these different views are with the politics -- is -- complicated model.
This is when someone will base their beliefs about racism and equality on other political factors. The objectives with this kind of philosophy are…… [Read More]. Political Theories the Ancient Athenian. For John Locke, government "…should be limited to securing the life and property of it citizens"; and government should allow freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. He was opposed to "hereditary monarchy" and supported human rights especially in his more mature years.
As to how these political theories connect with environmental policy in the U. Their recent bill, H. The right wing in Congress wants to take power away from the Environmental Protection Agency as well. Hume would likely approve of the Tea Party and GOP as to their disavowal of global climate change; he would agree that the U. Philosophy and Morality Instructions the Exam Consists. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation footnotes a reference page.
Philosophy John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience," A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance.
The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers Lyons John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners.
Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…… [Read More]. Political Ideas in Conflict One. In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang , discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong.
For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges Ash et al. There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. Political Science United States Participation. Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?.
Bosnia and the New Collective Security. Philosophy Leadership According to Plato. Unlike Plato, Machiavelli had a much less idealistic view of leadership in mind.
Plato obviously believed, after all, that the best leader would be the wisest and the most moral. It was these qualities that should be encouraged and these qualities that would make said individual a superior leader. Machiavelli argued implicitly that this was an erroneous understanding of human nature and the characteristics that constitute excellent leaders.
At the heart of Machiavelli's description of the perfect leader, his idealized prince, is the argument that personal virtue and ethics are completely unrelated to public success Kemerling. Hence, from this we see that the good leader will not necessarily be the same as the virtuous individual. This assertion stands in stark contrast to Plato's argument about the nature of leadership and highlights the…… [Read More].
Thomas Hobbes' Philosophy in the Leviathan The subject area concerning political theories is both vast and complex. Political theories come in the form of ancient philosophies and new age rhetoric. This discussion will focus on the philosophy of The Leviathan. The Leviathan written by Thomas Hobbes, explores the matter, form, and power of a commonwealth.
In the Leviathan Hobbes discusses the responsibility of the sovereign and the subjects. Hobbes philosophy contended that men must give up their right to govern themselves to a sovereign that would in turn govern the entire commonwealth and maintain peace and order.
The purpose of this discussion is to determine why Hobbes insisted that men had to surrender both their wills and their judgments to their sovereign. We will also discuss the social contract theory and the condition of men. This paper will look at four different thinkers -- obert Gilpin, Pankaj Ghemawat, Jeffrey Frankel and Moises Naim -- and discuss their thoughts on this subject, adding the author's own analysis and interpretation to build on their work.
In his The Nature of Political Economy, Gilpin delves into the perceived conflict between corporations and nation-states. He perceives these two actors as engaged in a cold conflict over the world's resources. He uses this discussion to frame his explanation of the nature of political economy. He notes that there is a reciprocal relationship between economics and politics p. Absent in his analysis are people, since neither have much real power, certainly not as much as might be found in collections of people working in the apparent interests of other people…… [Read More].
Until recently, my political awareness was limited to what I read about or heard around me. Young people are impressionable, and I formed my opinions as amalgamations of what my parents believed, and what I overheard my friends parents say too.
The news media, and celebrities I admire also had a strong influence on how I would frame my thinking. All these agents of socialization—my family, the media, my teachers, and my friends—shaped my identity and self-concept, and how I viewed the world. As a young adult, I have deconstructed much of what I learned and realized that I need to carve my own path by thinking critically about what I read, not just by avoiding the pitfalls of fake news, but also by avoiding a sheep-like mentality.
Instead of regurgitating what other people say, now I feel more confident in my own ability to articulate my political philosophies as…… [Read More]. Political Thought in Medieval Times. Medieval Political Thought How did Augustine of Hippo's and Thomas Aquinas' views of the role of human free will in the process of salvation shape their different views of political theory? For Augustine, there could be two cities -- the City of Man, which would essentially be a society without grace or goodness -- and the City of God, which would be a society that conformed to the will of God, participated with grace, and worked to perfect itself in accordance with the Commandments of God.
One would be an imperfect society the former and the other would be a perfect society. Essentially, the City of Man is a system in which all endeavors are geared towards earthly happiness whereas in the City of God, endeavors are geared towards a spiritual happiness with God, enjoyed fully in the next life if one is good and dies in the state of…… [Read More].
Philosophy of Plato and Hobbes Good. Justice in turn extends from and manifests as harmony, both at the macrocosmic or universal levels as with the movement of the celestial bodies, and at the microcosmic or mundane levels as in political or social life. Plato also discusses the nature, essence, and importance of absolute good as an archetypal Form.
The Form of Good is the seed of all things good, just, and harmonious in the universe. Plato is only slightly less concerned with Good from a moral standpoint, as the philosopher seems to take for granted that moral Good and virtue fall under the rubric of the Form of Good. In Leviathan, Hobbes's concern with good has much more to do with the process of critical thinking and understanding the relative nature of human judgment. Human concern with good reflects the constant need to…… [Read More].
However, some philosophical approaches deny the inherent value of equality or an egalitarian society. All philosophical viewpoints relate equality to morals or ethics, primarily because equality is deemed an ethical objective.
Using a utilitarian philosophical perspective, equality is an ethical ideal that presumably maximizes happiness for the greatest number of people. A deontological ethical perspective would similarly note that equality is an ethical ideal, not necessarily because it leads to a consequence like happiness, but because equality is inherently good.
Decisions made about things like taxes or due process of law hinge on a theory of equality. Similarly, access to health care, education,…… [Read More]. An example of APA citation would be: Teaching native speakers to recognize foreign-accented speech.
To check whether the work matches the requirements, download and study the corresponding writing style manual online or use free templates.
One of the most popular topics refers to the field of healthcare and medicine. In this small section, we will discuss how to create a nursing paper on a college or university level. Start with an exposition. Continue by providing the main argument of the research work. Next, come up with a powerful counter-argument and do not forget to include a worthy response to it - the introduction comes once you are done with these things. Leave conclusion to the end. Many students forget to add a full list of references bibliography after the conclusion, so dedicate a single page to it ahead.
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The political philosophy of Hobbes and Locke. In this paper, I will examine the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. I will investigate both men’s ideas individually and offer my own views on their theories. I will conclude the paper by comparing and contrasting the notions introduced in their respective writings.
Students who study political science, sociology, psychology, law, and literature may be interested in how to write a philosophy paper. You may be asked to prepare a philosophy essay on one of the related topics. We offer the step-by-step guide to writing it and 15 brilliant topics to consider.
Social and Political Philosophy Philosophy Fall Term Paper Assignment Due: Wednesday, December 7 Write an page (double-spaced) paper in which you reflect on the relevance to current events on any topic. 7. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau are all concerned with freedom. Write an essay comparing the views of freedom of two of these three (or even all three) concerning some aspect of the definition of freedom or the role of the .
Political Philosophy Research papers on political philosophy discuss the blending of political science and philosophy, illuminating various theoretical topics such as liberty, law, rights, authority and the legitimacy of government. Your conclusion in a short paper should be short as well. If possible, it should in a few sentences both draw together your main thoughts and present some new and interesting idea about their significance. Being Precise One of the most common defects of mediocre essays is vagueness and imprecision in language.