In Burger's follow-up study, he found that participants that worried about the well being of the learner were more hesitant to continue the study. He also found that the more the experimenter prodded the participant to continue, the more likely they were to stop the experiment.
The Utrecht University study also replicated Milgram's results. They also found that participants would either stop the experiment at the first sign of the learner's pleas or would continue until the end of the experiment called "the foot in the door scenario". One of the major assumptions of obedience research is that the effect is caused only by the experimental conditions, and Thomas Blass ' research contests this point, as in some cases participant factors involving personality could potentially influence the results.
In addition to personality factors, participants who are resistant to obeying authority had high levels of social intelligence. Obedience can also be studied outside of the Milgram paradigm in fields such as economics or political science.
One economics study that compared obedience to a tax authority in the lab versus at home found that participants were much more likely to pay participation tax when confronted in the lab.
Another study involving political science measured public opinion before and after a Supreme Court case debating whether or not states can legalize physician assisted suicide. They found that participants' tendency to obey authorities was not as important to public opinion polling numbers as religious and moral beliefs. Both the Milgram and Stanford experiments were conducted in research settings. In , psychiatrist Charles K. Hofling published the results of a field experiment on obedience in the nurse—physician relationship in its natural hospital setting.
Nurses, unaware they were taking part in an experiment, were ordered by unknown doctors to administer dangerous doses of a fictional drug to their patients. Although several hospital rules disallowed administering the drug under the circumstances, 21 out of the 22 nurses would have given the patient an overdose.
Many traditional cultures regard obedience as a virtue ; historically, societies have expected children to obey their elders compare patriarchy , slaves their owners, serfs their lords in feudal society , lords their king, and everyone God. Even long after slavery ended in the United States, the Black codes required black people to obey and submit to whites, on pain of lynching.
Compare the religious ideal of surrender and its importance in Islam the word Islam can literally mean "surrender". In some Christian weddings , obedience was formally included along with honor and love as part of a conventional bride's but not the bridegroom's wedding vow.
This came under attack with women's suffrage [ citation needed ] and the feminist movement. As of [update] the inclusion of a promise to obey in marriage vows has become optional in some denominations. Some animals can easily be trained to be obedient by employing operant conditioning , for example obedience schools exist to condition dogs to obey the orders of human owners.
Learning to obey adult rules is a major part of the socialization process in childhood, and many techniques are used by adults to modify the behavior of children. Additionally, extensive training is given in armies to make soldiers capable of obeying orders in situations where an untrained person would not be willing to follow orders. Soldiers are initially ordered to do seemingly trivial things, such as picking up the sergeant's hat off the floor, marching in just the right position, or marching and standing in formation.
The orders gradually become more demanding, until an order to the soldiers to place themselves into the midst of gunfire gets an instinctively obedient response. When the Milgram experimenters were interviewing potential volunteers, the participant selection process itself revealed several factors that affected obedience, outside of the actual experiment. Interviews for eligibility were conducted in an abandoned complex in Bridgeport , Connecticut.
This was not further researched to test obedience without a Yale professor because Milgram had not intentionally staged the interviews to discover factors that affected obedience. In the actual experiment, prestige or the appearance of power was a direct factor in obedience—particularly the presence of men dressed in gray laboratory coats , which gave the impression of scholarship and achievement and was thought to be the main reason why people complied with administering what they thought was a painful or dangerous shock.
Raj Persaud, in an article in the BMJ,  comments on Milgram's attention to detail in his experiment:. The research was also conducted with amazing verve and subtlety—for example, Milgram ensured that the "experimenter" wear a grey lab coat rather than a white one, precisely because he did not want subjects to think that the "experimenter" was a medical doctor and thereby limit the implications of his findings to the power of physician authority.
Despite the fact that prestige is often thought of as a separate factor, it is, in fact, merely a subset of power as a factor. According to Milgram, "the essence of obedience consists in the fact that a person comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out another person's wishes, and he therefore no longer sees himself as responsible for his actions. Once this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred in the person, all of the essential features of obedience follow.
Another explanation of Milgram's results invokes belief perseverance as the underlying cause. What "people cannot be counted on is to realize that a seemingly benevolent authority is in fact malevolent, even when they are faced with overwhelming evidence which suggests that this authority is indeed malevolent.
Hence, the underlying cause for the subjects' striking conduct could well be conceptual, and not the alleged 'capacity of man to abandon his humanity From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For any other use, see Obedience disambiguation. The answer is-But your protest should be done methodically, firmly and politely. Obedience often becomes extremely unpleasant because we may have to obey against our will. The modern philosopher regards human beings as instruments of the social will; man has to subordinate his individual self-will to the discipline of a social order.
So we have to learn to subordinate our wills to the superior in command. Finally, we must say something about the highest kind of obedience—that to one's conscience.
From our earliest days, we should teach ourselves to listen to the still soft voice of conscience that is within us. To do this one must be free from passion and self-love; then conscience is the unerring guide. In following our conscience, it may often be necessary to disobey the authority in whomsoever it might be vested. That is the way to greatness, to follow —. No power has the strength to coerce our conscience, and to no authority must we sacrifice our conscience for any consideration.
Refusal to submit to foreign domination, refusal to conform to customs, revolt against the domination of tyrants—are steps in the right direction. Otherwise, obedience will degenerate into slavery and servility. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge.
Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages: That is the way to greatness, to follow — What conscience dictates to be done? Or warns me not to do; No power has the strength to coerce our conscience, and to no authority must we sacrifice our conscience for any consideration. Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Obedience and Conformity Essay Sample Obedience and Conformity are both highly looked upon in the public service sector, this is because to be a successful team in public services you have to be able to work together successfully as a team and obedience and conformity both are a desired attribute when the public service department are recruiting.
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Obedience Definition and meaning: Obedience means ‘to do ones duty’ and ‘to obey the command of elders or superiors or authorities whose authority is normally not questioned’. The word ‘obedience comes’ from the Old French word obeir.
OBEDIENCE In my studying of the Milgram study of Obedience, I found that the location, the “authority” of the “experimenter” and the subjects themselves were factors that caused the subjects to obey.
Obedience to Authority essaysA person obeys another person because he is influenced by a stronger power, whether it being wealth, intellect, experience, or a higher position. Human beings have been obeying and disobeying since the beginning. In the Society of Nature, man gradually realised the importance of obedience. Hence they made one among them king whom all would obey unquestioningly. For obedience is the test of worship. Obedience is heaven's supreme law. The First man (Adam) disobeyed God and lost heaven. Obedience is a spiritual discipline. It is training for the mind.
Essay on Obedience Words | 4 Pages. Obedience is the process by which individuals comply with the instructions given by an authority figure not to be confused with conformity. There is one similarity between obedience and conformity which is that both involved a renunciation Of personal responsibility. Essay on Obedience Words 4 Pages Obedience is the process by which individuals comply with the instructions given by an authority figure not to be confused with conformity.