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The main advantage is that mobile users do not have to manually specify ZIP codes or other location identifiers to use LBS, when they roam into a different location. GPS tracking is a major enabling ingredient, utilizing access to mobile web.

There are a number of ways in which the location of an object, such as a mobile phone or device, can be determined. With control plane locating, sometimes referred to as positioning, the mobile phone service provider gets the location based on the radio signal delay of the closest cell-phone towers for phones without GPS features which can be quite slow as it uses the 'voice control' channel.

This technique was the basis of the E mandate and is still used to locate cellphones as a safety measure. Several categories of methods can be used to find the location of the subscriber. Sony Ericsson 's "NearMe" is one such example. It is used to maintain knowledge of the exact location, however can be expensive for the end-user, as they would have to invest in a GPS-equipped handset.

GPS is based on the concept of trilateration , a basic geometric principle that allows finding one location if one knows its distance from other, already known locations. A low cost alternative to using location technology to track the player, is to not track at all. This has been referred to as "self-reported positioning". It was used in the mixed reality game called Uncle Roy All Around You in and considered for use in the Augmented reality games in This application allows a person to access information based on their surroundings; especially suitable for using inside closed premises, restricted or regional area.

Another alternative is an operator- and GPS-independent location service based on access into the deep level telecoms network SS7. This solution enables accurate and quick determination of geographical coordinates of mobile phone numbers by providing operator-independent location data and works also for handsets that are not GPS-enabled. Many other local positioning systems and indoor positioning systems are available, especially for indoor use.

Location-based services may be employed in a number of applications, including: This can be especially useful when dialing an emergency telephone number — such as enhanced in North America , or in Europe — so that the operator can dispatch emergency services such as emergency medical services , police or firefighters to the correct location.

European operators are mainly using Cell ID for locating subscribers. This is also a method used in Europe by companies that are using cell based LBS as part of systems to recover stolen assets. Rave Wireless and other companies with location based offerings are powered by a variety of companies, including Skyhook Wireless , [29] AlterGeo [30] and Xtify.

Currently there are roughly three different models for location-based apps on mobile devices. All share that they allow one's location to be tracked by others. Each functions in the same way at a high level, but with differing functions and features. Below is a comparison of an example application from each of the three models. Mobile messaging plays an essential role in LBS. Messaging, especially SMS, has been used in combination with various LBS applications, such as location-based mobile advertising.

A classic example of LBS applications using SMS is the delivery of mobile coupons or discounts to mobile subscribers who are near to advertising restaurants, cafes, movie theatres. The Singaporean mobile operator MobileOne carried out such an initiative in that involved many local marketers, what was reported to be a huge success in terms of subscriber acceptance.

It is based on the individual's one time consent to participate in these services Opt In. The bill specifies the collecting entities, the collectable data and its usage.

The bill does not specify, however, the period of time that the data collecting entity can hold on to the user data a limit of 24 hours seems appropriate since most of the services use the data for immediate searches, communications, etc.

The bill which was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee, would also require mobile services to disclose the names of the advertising networks or other third parties with which they share consumers' locations. This put an additional challenge on LBS applications as far as "carrier-centric" services were concerned. The European Union also provides a legal framework for data protection that may be applied for location-based services, and more particularly several European directives such as: However the applicability of legal provisions to varying forms of LBS and of processing location data is unclear.

One implication of this technology is that data about a subscriber's location and historical movements is owned and controlled by the network operators, including mobile carriers and mobile content providers. Indeed, a recent MIT study [41] [42] by de Montjoye et al.

The study further shows that these constraints hold even when the resolution of the dataset is low. Therefore, even coarse or blurred datasets provide little anonymity. A critical article by Dobson and Fisher [43] discusses the possibilities for misuse of location information.

Beside the legal framework there exist several technical approaches to protect privacy using privacy-enhancing technologies PETs. Additionally, it is an open question how users perceive and trust in different PETs. The only study that addresses user perception of state of the art PETs is. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mobile phone tracking and Locating engine. Technologies and Standards" PDF. You select the level of qualification you need for this particular task: Choose what level of writing and vocabulary suits you best: If you want to buy a research paper , online writing service like ours is just what you need.

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