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Long-Term Orientation

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❶He later added a fifth dimension, Long-term Outlook.

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The way this definition is phrased is from a relatively high score on this dimension. During a cultural awareness training, I hardly ever go over this dimension. I usually stick to the first four main dimensions of culture power distance , individualism , masculinity and uncertainty avoidance.

Because, in my experience, long term orientation does not add much practical information or applicability when it comes to understanding different cultures. Only in very special circumstances, I address this dimension, or where it really makes sense I once did a workshop in Tokyo, with a large group of Japanese and a large group of Westerns; there it made sense! Does it make a noise? Below is a list of countries and their respective scores on this dimension.

One reason for me to leave this dimension out when giving a cultural awareness training is not all scores are know of all countries. A strong correlation with this is the dominating religions. The first four, or four main dimensions of culture are plenty enough to explain most business phenomenon when it comes to cultural differences and diversity. I believe it is probably hard to classify by country; however I do believe it is an interesting dimension to remember and to study as it affects negotiation briefs, attitudes, communication etc.

Thanks for leaving a comment. As with anything related to cultural differences: I agree fully with your Chinese student: One of the trait is that people in this kind of culture have a deep appreciation for tradition, personal steadiness and stability. USA belongs to short-term orientation culture, but they also belong to the low uncertainty avoidence culture.

It means that they are not afraid of changing and they consider change in life a normal thing. China belongs to the high uncertanty avoidence culture and they are afraid of changing and they hope to have a steady life. The traits of these two dimensions are contradictory.

Second to your question: Or, put differently, Americans are not risk averse. Neither are Chinese both score low on Uncertainty Avoidance. I am currently doing culture based research, and I am wondering where you obtained your LTO score for Zimbabwe? I have been unable to find score on any of the dimensions for Zimbabwe. Thank you for your comment! Am I missing something here… Because I have studied in China and even Chinese teachers used to say that Chinese people like traditions, are afraid of losing their face and favors and gifts are very usual in business.

The thing is this 5th Dimension is very difficult to understand for non-Chinese Asians in general. When the tree falls in the forest and there is no one there, of course it makes a noise. This is how we think including myself. The characteristics you mention in your comment are pretty much all related to the Collective aspect of Chinese society.

For students, teachers, and professors who want to review an academic paper by Dr. Power Distance Index PDI focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society.

A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's power and wealth.

In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed. Individualism IDV focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective, achievement and interpersonal relationships.

A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society.

Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.

Masculinity MAS focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination.

A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society. Uncertainty Avoidance Index UAI focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty.

A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risks.

Geert Hofstede added the following fifth 5th dimension after conducting an additional international study using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. That survey resulted in addition of the Confucian dynamism. Subsequently, Hofstede described that dimension as a culture's long-term Orientation. Long-Term Orientation LTO focuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values.

High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work.

However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an "outsider". A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change. More excellent information on the Geert-Hofstede website.

Geert Hofstede Dimensions scores for 56 countries and regions. Software of the Mind, Third Edition pages. SAGE Publications, Inc; 2nd edition - Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included.


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Hofstede developed the concepts of short-term and long-term orientation, which we'll be exploring in this lesson. In fact, he developed five cultural dimensions: individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, long-term orientation and power distance. His original research of cultural dimensions involved a study of IBM employees from .

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Examples Of Long Term Orientation - [ ] previous post on the cultural dimension Long Term Orientation had a lot of comments. Mainly on Social media. Since Hofstede’s six dimensions | h - [ ] smith, c. (, December .

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If you are talking about this article: Russia - Geert Hofstede, then it is surprisingly accurate. Well, maybe the whole "Long Term Orientation" dimension is a little bit over-estimated; from my experience I would score it little lower, but it . Russian experts states that a lot of problems in international business occur not only due to economic and political limitations inside the country but due to deep cultural differences. Russia is situated between Europe and Asia, but Russian mentality seems to be closer to the cultures of Portugal, Mexico and Brasil (Kirsanov A., ).

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Hofstede: Long Term / Short Term. It’s opposite pole, Short Term Orientation, stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular, respect for tradition, preservation of ‘face’ and fulfilling social obligations.”. HOFSTEDE’S 5 DIMENSIONS POWER DISTANCE Long-term vs short term orientation Based upon the teachings of Confucius: 1. The stability of society is based up unequal relationships between people. 2. The family is the prototype of all social organizations. Russia Extreme P Individualistic Affective Diffuse Ascription.