In a democracy, all the citizens are to be treated equally. Each one is given equal opportunity, irrespective of his caste, creed, religion and sex. Political democracy without social democracy has no meaning. Unless we provide equal justice and equal opportunities to all we shall not be able to enjoy the fruits of freedom.
We must have political as well as social democracy. The fundamental rights are regarded as the soul of our Constitution. The Constitution guarantees equal rights and privileges to all the citizens. These fundamental rights are necessary because they did not only provide security and equality to all citizens, but also ensure the all-round development of the individual and thus the development of the nation.
The Constitution of India bestows six fundamental rights upon its citizens. They put a check on the absoluteness and the despotic nature of the government. These rights are justifiable and cannot be denied to any citizen. The court ensures their observance by the State. They safeguard the citizens from the excess of the Executive and the Legislature.
Our society has been divided over various issues from the very early ages. The caste system for long divided the society. People belonging to the lower caste were not given the same privileges and opportunities as those of the upper caste. Then the British created a class of zamindars and feudal lords who were very harsh on the common people. The titles conferred by the British made them distinct from the others. Therefore, the right of equality given to us our Constitution is extremely important.
It establishes equality before law. Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality of all persons before the law. Article 15 prohibits any discrimination on grounds of caste, race, sex and religion. It states that all citizens can use public employment.
Article 18 prohibits the state from conferring such titles. It can only confer military or academic awards.
No citizen of India is permitted to accept any title even from any foreign state, especially if he is employed in a government job, without the permission and consent of the President of India.
In a democratic country like ours, safeguarding the freedom of an individual is very essential. Six freedoms have been granted to the citizens both individually and collectively. Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. But there are certain restrictions or limitations on these freedoms. For instance, the right to freedom of speech does not mean that we can say anything to anyone.
Our freedom to speech does not entitle us to make statements that are not in the interest of the security of the nation or sours ours relations with other countries. Similarly, the right to freedom of movement is also subject to certain restrictions as is the right to reside in any part of the country. The state can put restrictions on the buying of property in certain secluded regions keeping in view the security of the country.
This right protects the people from any sort of exploitation by the society. Children below the age of 14 years are not allowed to be employed in a factory or mine or in any other hazardous job.
This provision in the Constitution prevents women and children, in particular, from being ill treated. It also prohibits forced labor. India is a secular state. All people are entitled to the freedom of religion. They are free to profess, practice and propagate their religion. Although a majority of the population of India consists of Hindus, all the other religions such as Sikhism, Christianity and Islam are given equal respect. The State treats all religions alike.
The only restriction on this right is that nothing should be done which can incite religious passions and create communal tensions. India is a land of diversities. The Constitution grants the right to all groups, sects and minorities to safeguard and conserve the same. They are free to run their educational institutions and teach their children accordingly.
However, they cannot deny admission to any candidate who is desirous of joining such schools and colleges. This right entitles every citizen, who feels that his rights are being encroached upon, to move the Supreme Court, High Court or any other court. The Supreme Court is the custodian of our fundamental rights. In fact, without these rights, the other rights would be quite meaningless. The Constitution confers on us fundamental rights, but every right carries a duty with it.
If we have certain rights, we also have certain duties towards our country. According to the 42nd Amendment in the Constitution, the fundamental duties are as follows:.
To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag and the national anthem;. Several acts formed tensions between the Colonies and England. The colonists decided to hold the first Continental Congress, which formed a document that sent to King George which demanded their rights restored.
King George did not really like their offer, and decided to respond with force. In April , two battles between the British and colonial soldiers took place in Massachusetts at Lexington and Concord, which started the revolutionary war.
Not all of the members favored independence from England, but the majority decided that something needed to be done about them. Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson were two huge contributions to the cause. Thomas Jefferson was the man who wrote the Declaration of Independence. After the Revolutionary war, the Colonies started to turn into states.
Each state was creating their own constitutions. The first state to complete their constitution was New Hampshire. Constitutions had a bicameral Two house Legislature, a Governor to enforce laws, and Judges to interpret the laws. The first national government was the Articles of the Confederation. The Articles was a weak government were all of the power was in the states. The group formed because farmers were starting to lose their land because they could not pay off their debt. The rebellion failed at destroying the government but it showed people that their government was too weak and that they needed change.
In response to all of the unrest about a change in government, the people held the Constitutional Convention. The constitutional convention was only created to revise the Articles, but instead we came up with a different government. Two plans were talked about during the convention, the Virginia Plan, which favored large states, and the New Jersey plan, which favored smaller states.
Everyone finally got into an agreement except for the Southern States. After everyone was in agreement, the members of the Constitutional Convention signed the United States Constitution and added in the Bill of Rights, which are now the first 10 out of 27 amendments.
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